• 400


    The Babylonians studied astronomy as early as 400 BC and developed advanced ways of predicting events such as eclipses.
  • Period: 400 to


  • Apr 27, 1576

    Tycho Brahe Uses his Eyes

    Tycho Brahe Uses his Eyes
    Brahe set up an observatory in Hven, an island near Copenhagen and was able to calculate the position of Mars pretty accurately.
  • The New Astronomy

    The New Astronomy
    Johannes Kepler a student of Tycho Brahe, publishes Astronomia Nova (New Astronomy). Where He published his first two laws of planetary motion. His first one stating that Mars had an Elliptical Orbit an new idea at the time.
  • The First Observation

    The First Observation
    Galileo Galilei observes Mars with a early telescope becoming the first person to use it to observe space.
  • Rotational Period

    Rotational Period
    Giovanni Cassini observes Mars and determines that the rotational period is about 24 hours and 40 min.
  • The White Spot

    The White Spot
    Huygens is the first to notice a white spot on Mars at the south pole.
  • Honore Flaugergues

    Honore Flaugergues
    Honore Flaugergues, a French amateur astronomer, notices "yellow clouds" on the surface of Mars, that were later found to be dust clouds.
  • Extreme Seasons

    Extreme Seasons
    Flaugergues notices that the polar ice cap melt faster during the Martian Spring and leads him to believe that Mars is hotter than Earth.
  • William Whewell

    William Whewell
    William Whewell decides that Mars has green seas and red land.
  • Water Vapor and Oxygen

    Water Vapor and Oxygen
    Pierre Jules Janssen and Sir William Huggins make the first unsuccessful attempt to find water water vapor and oxygen spectroscopically.
  • A Map

    A Map
    Richard Anthony Proctor publishes a map of Mars with continents and oceans.
  • The Moons

    The Moons
    Asaph Hall discovers the moons of Mars. He names them Phobos (fear) and Deimos (fright), after the horses of the Greek war god, Ares
  • The Mistake

    The Mistake
    Schiaparelli uses the term "canali" to describe the streaks on the surface of Mars. But the term is actually meant to mean canals. Inferring that Mars may have had some intelligent life form that has built canals.
  • Observations

    Percival Lowell begins observation of Mars at his observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona.
  • Mars

    Percival Lowell publishes the novel Mars.
  • Mariner 4

    Mariner 4
    Mariner 4 was designed to carry out the first flyby of Mars.on November 28, 1964, Mariner 4 was launched successfully on an eight-month voyage to the red planet.