Major Innovations in the History of Biotechnology

  • Invention of Microscope

    Invention of Microscope
    The term "cells" was coined by Robert Hook.
    Anton Van Leeuwenhoek observed first microorganisms.
  • Simple Laws of Inheritance

    Simple Laws of Inheritance
    Gregor Mendel discovered traits that allowed one to predict the outcome of crosses with certain traits.
  • Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur
    Described scientific basis for fermentation, wine making, and the brewing of beer, established science of microbiology, and proposed the Germ Theory. Microorganisms were responsible for infectious diseases.
  • Nucleic Acid in White Blood Cells

    Nucleic Acid in White Blood Cells
    John Miescher found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus in bandages. Led scientists to believe that DNA might be the inheritable material of an organism.
  • Genes on Chromosomes

    Genes on Chromosomes
    From studying fruit flies, Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes were on chromosomes.
  • Genetic Material Movable

    Genetic Material Movable
    Using Mice, Fred Griffith proved that genetic material could be moved from one strain of bacteria to another.
  • Penicillin

    Sir Alexander Fleming isolated penicillin from fungus. Used to develope drugs.
  • ATCG

    In DNA, the number of units of adenine equaled number of thymine, and the number of units of cytosine equaled number of guanine.
  • "One gene produces one enzyme"

    "One gene produces one enzyme"
    Beadle and Tatum proposed the "One gene produces on enzyme" hypothesis.
  • DNA was Hereditary

    DNA was Hereditary
    Avery, McCarthy, and McLeod established that DNA was the hereditary material that was transferred.
  • "Blender Experiment"

    "Blender Experiment"
    Hershey and Chase proved viruses replicated using DNA. They also proved that the role of DNA as the hereditary material.
  • DNA a double helix

    DNA a double helix
    Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins established that DNA was a double helix through X-ray crystallography.
  • STructure of DNA

    STructure of DNA
    Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA.
  • Plasmid DNA and Bacteria

    Plasmid DNA and Bacteria
    Hayes discoveres plasmid DNA, and circular pieces of DNA are found in bacteria.
  • Messenger RNA

    Messenger RNA
    Walter Gilbert discovered mechanism of gene expression through the study of messenger RNA.
  • Bacterial Restriction Enzymes

    Bacterial Restriction Enzymes
    Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA.
  • Codons

    Khorana and Nirenberg discovered the 64 codons that code for the 20 amino acids that make up proteins.
  • DNA Plasmids Isolated

    DNA Plasmids Isolated
    Vinograd purified and isolated DNA plasmids.
  • Escherichia Coli

    Escherichia Coli
    Madel and Higa were responsible for the first transformation of the Escherichia Coli bacterium.
  • Cloning Experiments

    Cloning Experiments
    Conducted by Boyer and Cohen.
  • Genentech

    World's first genetic engineering company was founded.
  • Recombinant DNA

    Recombinant DNA
    Scientists drew up recombinant DNA in mircroorganisms.
  • Sequence DNA

    Sequence DNA
    Sanger and Gilbert found a way to sequence DNA. They were able to read the correct order of bases of ACGT.
  • E. Coli

    E. Coli
    Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E. Coli.
  • RFLP

    Botstein found Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, a DNA fingerprint.
  • Vitro Fertilization

    Vitro Fertilization
    Louise Joy Brown was the first human baby that resulted from the sperm and egg joining in a petri dish and then implanted in the womb.
  • Start up of biotech companies

    Start up of biotech companies
    Genetically altered life forms can be patented is what the U.S. Supreme Court ruled. Biotech companies got upset.
  • Transgenic Animals

    Transgenic Animals
    Ohio University scientists made the first transgenic animals.
  • Eli Lilly Company

    Eli Lilly Company
    Placed a human insulin gene inside bacteria.
  • Agrobacterium-mediated

    Schell, Chilton, Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch transformed plants.
  • PCR

    Kary Mullis invented plymerase chain reaction to amplify DNA.
  • DNA profiling

    DNA profiling
    Jeffriese applied RFLP in DNA profiling to study criminal cases.
  • Automated Fluorescence Sequencer

    Automated Fluorescence Sequencer
    Sped up the labor-intense process.
  • Gene Gun

    Gene Gun
    Genes were able to move into an organism.
  • Safety Guidlines

    Safety Guidlines
    NIH revised safety guidlines to include plants grown in green houses and animals raised in barns.
  • C. elegans

    C. elegans
    Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference, silencing of genes.
  • MAb

    Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody.
  • Yeast Artificial Chromosomes

    Yeast Artificial Chromosomes
    Maynard Olson invented YAC's, which are expression vectors for large proteins.
  • Dolly

    Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of a ewe at the Roslin Institute in Scotland.
  • DNA microarray technology

    DNA microarray technology
    DNA chip was used to look at the expression of genes of an organism on a microscope slide or silicon chip.
  • DNA sequencer

    DNA sequencer
    Dabiri and Garner invented a DNA sequenver that had a capability of sequencing 76,800 base pairs per hour.
  • Riboswitch

    Ron Breaker coined the term Riboswitch for part of molecule that regulates its own activity and gene expresssion.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    The Human Genome Project was completed by Francis Collins and Craig Venter. It provided the ability to find genes and to the sequencing of other genomes.