MAIN HISTORICAL FACTS

  • 476

    The beginning of the Middle Ages

    The Middle Ages begins with the fall of The Western Roman Empire.
  • Jan 1, 800

    Economy

    In early medieval times, the economy was stagnant. Starting in the 9th century, the land was the main source of wealth. With feudalism, in which the upper class owned most of the fiefdoms, the land began to be exploited with the labor of the lower class, made up of peasants and slaves.
  • Jan 1, 800

    The beginning of the music

    Western musical notation was born around 800 AD in the Empire of Charlemagne. It will be used to preserve the liturgical song of the Church of Rome, a musical repertoire formed over several centuries: The Gregorian chant.
  • Jan 1, 800

    The first polyphonies

    In the 9th century, the first testimonies of polyphonic singing of Western music were produced. The first example was, an antiphon in honor of Saint Boniface. The emergence of the polyphonic composition will occur coinciding with the 12th century Renaissance and the birth and expansion of the Cistercian Order
  • Jan 1, 800

    The appearance of music notation

    Previously, texts were sung, but were not written down, they were passed on orally. In monasteries, scribes began to draw symbols over the texts to help monks remember the melodies. This are called neumes. And this system of music notation called neumatic notation.
  • Jan 1, 800

    Monophony

    Is a combination of sounds that make a melody. It is a single part or voice in which no other sounds are heard at the same time.
  • Period: Jan 1, 800 to Jan 1, 1000

    Stages of the Middle Ages; High Middle Ages

    It was characterized by the creation of a feudal regime as a social, commercial and hierarchical system. The figures of the king, the nobles and the clergy made up the upper class.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Economy

    At the end of the 11th century, agricultural production increased, due to the climatic conditions that were favorable in the sowing seasons and to technological advances, such as water mills and the triennial rotation of crops. As a result, the population's diet improved, famine and plagues decreased, and there was a gradual population growth.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    The musical monodic composition

    Medieval musical creation was expressed mainly through monody. It existed since the 11th century. These works were created according to mechanisms of oral tradition.
  • Jan 1, 1000

    Guido d'Arezzo

    Guido d'Arezzo created the music notation that we know now. He named each note of the scale, taken the first syllable of the hymn dedicated to Saint John, and he created the system of written music, is based on a stave of four lines. BUt in the 15th century, the five line stave became the norm.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1100 to Jan 1, 1492

    Stages of the Middle Ages; Low Middle Ages

    It was characterized by the decline of the Church and monarchical power, famine, plagues and the crusades, which consisted of eight military campaigns led by the Catholic Church against Palestine.
  • Jan 1, 1453

    The Renaissance

    The Modern period started with the fall of the Byzantine empire, in 1453, and ended with the French Revolution, in 1789. After the discovery of America, trading routes and colonies were established all over the world. Monarchies strengthened their power and laid the foundations of the modern state. Science made huge advances and economic growth meant big social transformations.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Characteristics of the Renaissance

    · It is always polyphonic, which means that there are always many voices.
    - There is always an equilibrium between the voices. One voice is never emphasised more than other.
    - The rhythm is regular and beats softly, except in dances.
    - The lyrics are very important and the music is used to emphasise them.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Society

    In the Renaissance, a new social class became more and more influential: the bourgeoisie. The new class mainly consisted of merchants and artisans. The bourgeoisie, the nobility and the Church were interested in the arts and the sciences. This is how the first patrons appeared.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Music

    The characteristics of Renaissance music began to break down towards the end of the period with the increased use of root motions of fifths. The main characteristics of Renaissance music are the following: 1. Music based on modes. 2. Richer texture in four or more parts. 3. Blending rather than contrasting strands in the musical texture. 4. Harmony with a greater concern with the flow and progression of chords.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Music; Polyphony

    Polyphony is one of the notable changes that mark the Renaissance from the Middle Ages musically. Its use encouraged the use of larger ensembles and demanded sets of instruments that would blend together across the whole vocal range. Common sacred genres were the mass, the motet, the madrigale spirituale, and the laude.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Music; Secular

    Secular music was music that was independent of churches. The main types were the German Lied, Italian frottola, the French chanson, the Italian madrigal, and the Spanish villancico. Other secular vocal genres included the caccia, rondeau, virelai, bergerette...etc.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Religion

    People increasingly began to see the world from a human-centered perspective. This had a powerful impact upon religion. Increasingly, people were paying more attention to this life rather than the afterlife. Eventually, humanism brought about a spirit of skepticism.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Art

    Renaissance art is marked by a gradual shift from the abstract forms of the medieval period to the representational forms of the 15th century. Subjects grew from mostly biblical scenes to include portraits, episodes from Classical religion, and events from contemporary life. The most notable of which, humanism, altered the mindset of the people and allowed them to explore and appreciate human life.
  • Jan 1, 1454

    Politics

    The Renaissance is a time when the sense of political renewal feels like a necessity. New ideologies appear that reject the meaning of the State and medieval power and a new social class is imposed, the bourgeoisie, which will be the one who promotes that ideology.
  • Jan 1, 1455

    Culture

    The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement that started in Italy and spread all over Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. It was characterised by the “rebirth” of the culture of antiquity: Greece and Rome. An intellectual and cultural movement developed called Humanism. They returned to the artistic taste of the classical world and tried to achieve and ideal form of beauty in their works, based on harmony and proportions in man and nature.
  • Jan 1, 1456

    Culture; Humanism

    Humanism is based on the idea that human beings are the centre of the universe: anthropocentrism. People should embrace human achievements in education, classical arts, literature and science. Is important to understand the evolution of music.
  • Jan 1, 1492

    The end of The Middle Ages

    The Middle Ages ends with the fall of the Byzantine Empire (on 1453) and the discovery of America (on 1492).
  • The Baroque

    It was a cultural period that developed in Europe in the 17th century and the 18th century. It was characterised by the pessimistic view of life and the importance of feelings.
  • Stages of Baroque

    Baroque cultures coincided in Spain in a fruitful period that is part of the Golden Age.
    The Baroque originated in Italy, but spread throughout Europe and America. It is divided into three main stages:
    · Early baroque, years 1590 and 1625
    · Full Baroque, between 1625 and 1660
    · Late Baroque, between 1660 and 1725, which gave way to the successor movement: Rococo.
  • The main characteristics of the Baroque

    The main characteristics of this movement were:
    · Exaggerated art.
    · Appreciation of details.
    · Dualism and contradictions.
    · Darkness, complexity and sensuality.
    · Literary Baroque: culteranismo and conceptismo.
    · Criticism of reality.
    · Decline/decadence.
  • The crisis

    The 17tn century it was devastating for Spanish society, due to the complications of the political, economic and military context, which led to a major crisis.
    The crisis meant the stagnation of the population, the decline in agricultural activity, difficulties for urban industry and traditional commerce.
    The hardest was the economic regression and the enormous demographic decline. Unfortunately, it could have been avoided if the correct measures had been taken.
  • The social crisis

    There was a great demographic loss as a result of the expulsion of Moors and Jews and by emigration to the homeland.
    Society was still divided into estates: the privileged (nobles and clergy) and the unprivileged (peasants); but the bourgeoisie was increasingly influential, which led to the further development of the rights of the disadvantaged.
  • The culture and thought of the Baroque

    In the Baroque, the same themes are treated as in the Renaissance (love, mythological, religious...), but with another vision: that of disappointment, which will lead to pessimistic attitudes and approaches: distrust, doubt about others.
    Catholicism fights with Lutheranism and Protestantism and there are wars of religion. Monarchical absolutism is defended as a form of government.
    Baroque thought is based on decadence.
  • The artistic and literary activity

    The themes common to baroque literature are:
    · The transience of life and its ephemeral and unstable character.
    · Death and the passage of time.
    · The punishment as a consequence of sin.
    · Repentance.
    · The narration of tragic scenes.
  • The pictorial styles

    The main pictorial styles:
    · Naturalism: It is based on the observation and reproduction of nature. This style is heir to the tenebrism (taste for chiaroscuro) of Caravaggio.
    · Classicism: It is realistic, but with a more rational conception, in which drawing predominates over color and with more closed works.
  • The most important music forms

    · The fugue; keyboard instrument. It had just one movement.
    · The suite; various movements.
    · The sonata; 4 movements. It was written for 1, 2 or 3 instruments.
    · The concerto; 3 contrasting movements (allegro, lento and allegro).
  • Secular vocal music

    It was very important to the monarchy. Kings displayed their power through music.
    · The opera; is a combination of theatre, literature and music, and is of international importance. Opera was born in Italy in the 17th century.
    · The libretto; contains the text of an opera, divided into several acts, and with a plot . The opera seria, was based on mythology or heroic stories, was especially popular. The opera buffa has a libretto in the local language of the country.
  • Main parts of the opera;

    1. Instrumental parts; · Overture; Introduction to the work. It usually gives a taste of the melodies. · Interlude; Section that comes between the acts or scenes.
    2. Vocal and instrumental parts; · Recitative; Semi-sung part, with a very basic melody and simple accompaniment of basso continuo. · Aria; Part where one or two soloists perform moving texts with expressive melodies. · Chorus; Performed by singers or a large proportion of the supporting cast of the opera.
  • Religious vocal music;

    It was used by the Church used for liturgical celebrations and as an instrument to influence believers, to display economic power.
    The Protestant Church kept the chorale as the most representative music form. Also kept Renaissance music forms that already were established such as the mass and motet, and created new ones like the oratorio and cantata.
  • Religious vocal music;

    · The oratorio; vocal music form with a narrative character based on texts from the Bible. Its structure is similar to an opera, but is different because the characters do not act.
    · The passion; similar to the cantata but with a theme exclusively related to the passion and death of Jesus Christ.
    · The cantata; vocal music form based on religious or secular text. Cantatas do not narrate a story, which is why they are different from an oratorio and a passion.
  • The Classical period

    The golden age; The Classical period is an artistic period that spanned the second half of the 18th century and the first decades of the 19th century (until about 1820). It was called the “Century of Light”.
  • The most important Classical composers

    · The Classical period extended throughout Europe and Vienna, considered to be the musical capital of this style.
    · The most important Classical composers lived there: Haydn, Mozart y Beethoven.
  • Who were important in the Classical period?

    · The bourgeoisie, liberal professionals and businessmen, gained importance during the 18th century. Musicians found in them a new audience, culturally prepared to value their compositions.
  • Classical Period Instruments

    Strings; Violin, Viola, Cello, ontrabass
    Woodwinds; Basset clarinet, Basset horn, Clarinette d’amour, Classical clarinet, Chalumeau, Flute, Oboe, Bassoon
    Keyboards; Clavichord, Fortepiano, Harpsichord, fell out of use in the late eighteenth century
    Brasses; Buccin, Ophicleide, precursor of tuba, French horn
  • Characteristics of classical music

    · Is based on clarity, simplicity and, particularly, balance between all of the elements.
    · Repeated chords and arpeggios were used.
    · The rhythm it is more smooth and natural.
    · The melody is the main character and stands out over the other elements.
    · The compositions are balanced and of precise proportions.
    · The classical orchestra was born, was characterized by incorporating new instruments.
    · The previous forms were perfected and other new ones.
  • Classical instrumental music

    · Instrumental compositions reflected the spirit of the Enlightenment. Their melodies were clearer, more balanced and less ornamented that the ones from the Baroque period.
  • Classical vocal music;

    The major vocal forms or styles associated with Hindustani classical music are dhrupad, khyal, and tarana. Light classical forms include dhamar, trivat, chaiti, kajari, tappa, tap-khyal, ashtapadis, thumri, dadra, ghazal and bhajan; these do not adhere to the rigorous rules of classical music. Vocal musics of the classical period:
    · "Ave Maria" by Charles Gounod.
    · Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565 by J.S. Bach.
    · Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op.
  • Religious vocal music;

    · Religious music from 1750 to 1820 was considered subordinate to instrumental music and opera. Oratorio and church music are the sacred music during this era. Is a type of music that is performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. It may overlap with ritual music, which is music, sacred or not, performed or composed for or as ritual.
  • The politics

    · Democracy, the established politics of this period, inherently gave everyone who was considered a citizen the power to participate in politics.
    · The five characteristics of civilization are; a centralized government, organized religion, social classes, arts or culture, and writing.
  • The end of the Classical period

    The Classical period is an artistic period that spanned until about 1820.
  • The Romantic period; Beginning

    · It was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Germany and the United Kingdom at the end of the 18th century as a revolutionary reaction against the Enlightenment and Neoclassicism, giving priority to feelings
  • Main ideas of this period

    The main ideas:
    · Subjectivity and an emphasis on individualism
    · Spontaneity
    · Freedom from rules
    · Solitary life rather than life in society
    · The beliefs that imagination is superior to reason and devotion to beauty
    · Love and worship of nature
  • The main purpose of Romantic

    The main purpose of Romantic era music is to express emotion. Composers broke away from the old rules and simplicity to create this new style of music. Abrupt shifts in dynamics and tempo combined with daring harmonies and melodies are the basis for the Romantic era musical language.
  • The melody characteristics

    Some general characteristics of Romantic Music are:
    · Melody; Long, lyrical melodies with irregular phrases, Wide, somewhat angular skips, extensive use of chromaticism, vivid contrasts, a variety of melodic ideas within one movement.
    · Rhythm: Frequent changes in both tempo and time signatures.
  • Themes of the Romantic period

    The key themes of the Romantic Period:
    · Revolution, democracy, and republicanism.
    · The Sublime and Transcendence.
    · The power of the imagination, genius, and the source of inspiration.
    · Proto-psychology & extreme mental states.
    · Nature and the Natural.
  • Examples of romanticism

    Some examples of romanticism include:
    · Lyrical Ballads by Wordsworth and Coleridge.
    · Hymns to the Night by Novalis.
    · Poetry by William Blake.
    · Poetry by Robert Burns.
    · Rousseau's philosophical writings.
    · "Song of Myself" by Walt Whitman.
    · The poetry of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
  • Liberalism

    Liberalism
    Napoleon Bonaparte started political reforms that consolidated liberalism, a system that defended civil liberties against monarchical despotism. Some alliances were able to slow down Napoleon’s military expansion and there was a return to absolute monarchy. But liberalism was strong and promoted by the politically ambitious bourgeoisie; and on nationalism, which defended that a state’s borders should coincide with its religious, ethnic, linguistic and historic natural borders.
  • The Capitalism; the society

    After some Industrial Revolutions, the capitalism appeared. The society divided:
    · The ruling class: aristocracy and bourgeoisie.
    · The middle class: professionals and civil servants.
    · The working class.
  • Art

    Romantic art focused on emotions, feelings, and moods of all kinds including spirituality, imagination, mystery, and fervor. The subject matter varied widely including landscapes, religion, revolution, and peaceful beauty. The brushwork for romantic art became looser and less precise. Is focused on freedom of form, imagination, and expression.
  • The religion

    Pantheism, for instance, flourished particularly in the Romantic period and arguably became one of its defining characteristics. Atheism was also increasingly defended, adhering to the empirical principles of the Age of Enlightenment.
  • Social structure

    · Low "Working class": farming, ironwork, gravediggers, servants.
    · Middle class: traders, businessmen
    · High class: inherited wealth, government posisions
  • The Romantic period: The end

    · In 1910, this period end because the compositions became increasingly expressive and inventive.
  • Beginning of the 20th century

    · Dramatic social, scientific and technological advances took place in the 20th
    century.
  • What was music like in the 20th century?

    · The 20th century was the first century of recorded music. Swing jazz in the 1920s and 30s aimed for making people move. The music was rhythmic, repetitive and danceable. Different sub-categories of jazz evolved into less danceable music, such as bebop, cool jazz, and free jazz.
  • HIstory; What happened in this century?

    · The 20th century was dominated by significant events that defined the modern era: Spanish flu pandemic, World War I and World War II, nuclear weapons, nuclear power and space exploration, nationalism and decolonization, technological advances, and the Cold War and post-Cold War conflicts.
  • The popular music in the 20th century

    · The blues would be the most far-reaching, with its influence felt in everything from jazz to rock, country music to rhythm and blues, and classical music.
  • Changes in the new music

    · Music in the 20th Century changed dramatically, due to the hostile political climate, advances in technology, and huge shifts in style. Many composers, struggling to build any further on the music of generations gone by, reacted against established musical trends, creating exciting new forms and styles.
  • Characteristics of this music

    · Rhythm: Complex, individual rhythms are used, and new rhythms and meters are common such as polyrhythms and polymeters.
    · Melody: Are often fragmented, dissonant and experimental.
  • Why is 20th century music important?

    · Twentieth century music brought new freedom and wide experimentation with new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of music of earlier periods.
  • Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky; The most important composer

    Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky; The most important composer
    · Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (17 June 1882–6 April 1971) was a Russian composer, pianist and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century.
  • Culture (popular culture)

    · Popular culture refers to the blending of low and high culture. The last quarter of the 20th century saw the development of a global popular culture made possible by mass culture consumerism, telecommunications technology, and the growing importance of diversity and multiculturalism.
  • End of the 20th century