Khrushchev's Foreign Policy 1953-64

  • Key Terms + Aims

    - Destalinisation (although fp barely differed from him)
    - Peaceful Coexistence "capitalism + communism could exist side by side without military conflict"
    - Security
    - Revitalise Economy Western Aims
    - Containment
    - Security Brinkmanship = faking the approach to a nuclear war to convince other side to concede
    Detente = period of lessened tension
    Destalinisation = attempts to liberalise USSR
  • Dictatorship to Collective Leadership

    Designed to improve living standards + dismantle police state
    More relaxed atmosphere/international climate
  • April Speech

    - ended war in Korea
    - reduced military spending by $10 million by 1956
  • Operation Solarium (USA)

    • National security goes beyond geographcial territory (defnd capitalism)
    • Cut conventional forces and develop nuclear arsenal
    • More emphasis on the role of the CIA
    Both Einsenhower and Dulles believed that nuclear force would act as a detterent to Soviet Aggression
  • East German Revolt

    - Food Shortages
    - Mass Emigration into West from East
    • Ulbricht ordered to slow Sovietisation
    • BUT too late so strikes and riots
    • Soviet Response via troops, 125 die
    • Made a firm commitment to GDR and consolidate influence in satellite states
  • “New Course” in foreign policy

    • Opened diplomatic channels with West
    • Removed soviet military bases in Finland
    • Austrian Treaty which re established Austria as independent
    Worked alongside Khruschev's policy of reducing the size of the Red Army by 20%
  • Geneva Conference

    • Spirit of Geneva
    • Agreed to coexistence, hoped it would be one of several conferences to reduce tensions
    • Death of Stalin reduced fear
    • Discussed German reunification, security and disparagement
    • No agreement over Germany
    • Khruschev's proposal to disband Warsaw and NATO rejected
    • Eisenhower’s “open skies policy” was rejected
  • Warsaw Pact

    Allowed members to consult on issues of mutual interest and give them necessary assistance if attacked
    Response to West Germany (FRG) joining NATO
  • Apology to Tito

    Khruschev travels to Belgrade to apologise for Stalin's attitude towards him
  • FDR joins NATO

  • Poland

    • Poznan factory workers staged protests over pay and conditions
    • Stormed the Communist Party Headquarters
    • Soviets fired at demonstrators (battle for poznan)
    • Polish Communist Party re-elected Gomulka
    • Showed the government were not going to be pushovers
  • Hungarian Uprising

    • Replaced Stalinist leader w/ Erno Gero so it would become independent communist regime
    • Huge demonstration in Hungary in support of Poles, 30,000 troops
    • Gero replaced with Nagy
    • 'Principles of Friendship', appeared to seek compromise
    • 4th Nov, Troops enter Hungary, 30,000 killed
    • Soviets capture ropads, railways etc
    • Nagy executed
    • If hadn't reacted they would've exposed weakness to USA, UK and FR
    • Threat of leaving Warsaw Pact
    • Condemned by West
  • Moscow Conference

    • States must stick to soviet political and economic model to gain the benefits of tolerance and economic help
    • USSR = 'first and mightiest'
  • Berlin Wall

    • Built to stop the increased movement of workers into west berlin (1/6 of East Germany fled West)
    • Avoided direct confrontation w/ west
    • Let Ulbricht develop his new economic system
    • Stop “brain drain”
    Americans react:
    - forced them to recognise EB as separate state
    - scaled a makeshift wall
    - imposed no economic sanctions
    - humiliated Khruschev + showed communism couldn't compete with capitalism
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    • Kennedy + Khruschev concerned w/ how close the world had come to nuclear war
    • Want to minimise the possibility of nuclear conflict
    • Public success for America but privately removed missiles
    Willing to Compromise bcs
    - new american ICBMs
    - huge economic drain to USSR
    - pressure from communist China
  • Test Ban Treaty

    • Banned nuclear tests in the atmosphere, under water and in outer space (only USSR and USA would really count)
    - Second Berlin crisis demonstrated dangers of nuclear war
    - Economic considerations, both want to reduce arms expenditure + space race drained both budgets
    - Impact of Cuban Missile Crisis
    - Public opinion in USA against missile tests