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Key Moments in the Evolution of Management

By jrs34
  • Taylor Defines Scientific Management

    Taylor Defines Scientific Management
    F.W. Taylor (1856-1915) devolops four principles in scientific management with the goal to increase efficiency. By 1910 his system was known and used nationally. His system had managers focus on analyzing and improving efficiency of workers' tasks (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Ford Introduces Mass-Production Manufacturing

    Ford Introduces Mass-Production Manufacturing
    Managers at Ford's Hyland Park plant develop new mass-production manufacturing that revolutionizes production capitalizing on division of labor and specialization. In addition, they introduce the conveyor belt and the beginnings of mechanized production (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Principles of Bureaucracy Developed

    Principles of Bureaucracy Developed
    Max Weber (1864-1920) helps Germany manage its industrial revolution by developing five principles of bureaucracy. His focus was on the organization and administration to improve efficiency (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Behavioral Management Theory begins with Mary Parker Follett

    Behavioral Management Theory begins with Mary Parker Follett
    Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) is sometimes considered the “mother” of management thought. While others such as Taylor helped managers focus on efficiency of tasks, Follett focused on behavior. She recommended that management include workers in the work development process and encouraged “cross-functioning,” a forerunner to today’s cross-departmental teams (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Fayol Identifies 14 Principles of Management

    Fayol Identifies 14 Principles of Management
    Henri Fayol (1841-1925) identified 14 principles of management that were critical to increasing efficiency in the management process. Even though these principles were developed a century ago, they remain the foundation of modern management theory (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Hawthorne Studies 1924-1932

    Hawthorne Studies 1924-1932
    The Hawthorne studies investigating the effects of lighting on worker performance make a surprising discovery: workers perform differently when they are watched. This significant finding showed the importance of managers' presence in the working environment. Workers attempt to please those they are being watched by through better performance, and thus have better production (Jones & George, 2014).
  • First Computer on the Market

    First Computer on the Market
    Britain supplies the first computer on the market. Unfortunately for Europe, the devastation of WWII makes them incapable of entering the computer race until the 1960’s. Japan was also slower to enter the market. Therefore, throughout the 1950’s the US had the biggest market for computers, and therefore, were able to control the market for many years (Campbell-Kelly, Aspray, Ensmenger, & Yost, 2013).
  • Theory X vs Theory Y in how Managers Think

    Theory X vs Theory Y in how Managers Think
    Douglas McGregor suggests the assumptions managers have about work attitudes and behaviors significantly affects how they both think and behave in the organization. Theory X is a set of negative assumptions that leads to closely supervising and controlling workers. On the other hand, Theory Y is a positive set of assumptions that leads a manager to encourage commitment, opportunity, initiative and self-direction (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Lean Manufacturing Pioneered & Developed

    Lean Manufacturing Pioneered & Developed
    Toyota production engineer, Taiichi Ohno, develops lean manufacturing. This management philosophy was aimed at improving efficiency in cost, quality and time in production (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was a significant piece of legislation in the US outlawing descrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin. The law had major ramifications for schools, public facilities and the workplace. While having a significant impact on the workplace, it is but one of many major steps and victories in bringing equality and changing workplace management and thinking (Smith, 2008).
  • The Organization as an Open System

    The Organization as an Open System
    Daniel Katz, Robert Kahn and James Thompson develop the Open System view of organizations. Organizations are not a self-contained system, rather they are open because they acquire resources from external sources, create products using these resources, and then release the finished product or service back to the external environment (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Mintzberg IDs Ten Managerial Roles

    Mintzberg IDs Ten Managerial Roles
    Henry Mintzberg identifies 10 specific roles of managers which show the breadth of managers' responsibilities. He grouped the roles into three types: decisional, interpersonal and informational (Jones & George, 2014).
  • The Personal Computer Takes Off

    The Personal Computer Takes Off
    The concept of the personal computer hits public consciousness. At the West Coast Computer Faire, the Apple II and the Commodore PET, were launched for the mass consumer. This event represents the large-scale awareness of the personal computer for both home and business use. It also launches the software boom which made computers useful. The personal computer will transform the face of the business world in how managers think and use information (Campbell-Kelly et al., 2013) .
  • Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977

    Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977
    The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act established rules regarding international business relationships in effort to ensure ethical practices by management (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Sustainability Begins to be a Focus

    Sustainability Begins to be a Focus
    The 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development defines sustainability and begins a trend for business to move towards sustainable, eco-friendly practices. The movement emphasizes both environmental and social responsibilities that managers have to take into consideration as they lead and make business decisions (Braun & Tietz, 2013).
  • Managers Address Sweatshop Conditions

    Managers Address Sweatshop Conditions
    Growing awareness by customers in the 1990's of sweatshop conditions in the clothing and footwear industries forces management to address supply chains and foreign factory labor conditions (Jones & George, 2014).
  • The Rise of the Internet

    The Rise of the Internet
    Only 313000 computers were connected to the internet in the fall of 1990. Five years later it was 10 million and grew to more than 100 million by the end of 2000. The internet revolutionizes the business world by transforming communication abilities, information access and how we conduct business. It immediately expands the market into a global market (Campbell-Kelly et al., 2013).
  • Global Competition Speeds Outsourcing

    Global Competition Speeds Outsourcing
    Global competition and information technology changes significantly shift managers tasks and responsibilities in the 2000's, including dramatic shifts in outsourcing (Jones & George, 2014).
  • Environmental Management Accounting

    Environmental Management Accounting
    The United Nations Divisions for Sustainable Development creates procedures and principles for environmental management accounting. The emerging field is a system of identifying, collecting and analyzing information, such as air emissions, solid waste, wastewater, prevention costs, research & development costs, and emission control costs. This information is shared with managers to assist in decision making (Braun & Tietz, 2013).
  • Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX)

    Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX)
    In response to numerous major corporate accounting scandals, US Congress passes the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The act requires the CEO and CFO to assume responsibility for a company’s financial statements and significantly increases the requirements for the internal controls managers use.
    (Braun & Tietz, 2013).
  • The First iPhone Released

    The First iPhone Released
    The introduction of the iPhone represents the trend of mobile computing. PDA’s, smartphones, and wireless internet have transformed the business environment. The ability to work remotely, connect globally, and market instantly have been realized (Campbell-Kelly et al., 2013).