Interactive Civil Rights Timeline

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In History
  • Brown v Board of Education

    Brown v Board of Education
    The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, also known as the Freedmen's Bureau,was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1865. Its main mission was to provide relief and help freedmen become self-sufficient in all areas of life.
  • Brown v Board of Education

    Brown v Board of Education
    In the United States, the Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War.Black Codes was a name given to laws passed by southern governments established during the presidency of Andrew Johnson. These laws imposed severe restrictions on freedmen, such as prohibiting their right to vote, forbidding them to sit on juries, and limiting their right to testify against white men.
    Website
    http://goo.gl/EZpZPD
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Plessy v Ferguson
    website
    In 1890, the state of Louisiana passed a law (the Separate Car Act) that required separate accommodations for blacks and whites on railroads, including separate railway cars.
  • Plessy v Ferguson

    Plessy v Ferguson
    In 1892, passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a Jim Crow car. He was brought before Judge John H. Ferguson of the Criminal Court for New Orleans, who upheld the state law.
  • Medger evers

    Medger evers
    website
    Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an American civil rights activist from Mississippi who worked to overturn segregation at the University of Mississippi and gain social justice and voting rights. A World War II veteran and college graduate, he became active in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s. He became a field secretary for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
  • Congress of Racial Equality(CORE)

    Congress of Racial Equality(CORE)
    websiteThe Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942 as the Committee of Racial Equality by an interracial group of students in Chicago-Bernice Fisher, James R. Robinson, James L. Farmer, Jr., Joe Guinn, George Houser, and Homer Jack..
  • Jackie Robinson

    Jackie Robinson
    websiteJackie Robinson made history in 1947 when he broke baseball’s color barrier to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers.In 1949 Robinson won the league MVP award, and he was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.After baseball, Robinson got a job as vice president of a coffee shop chain called Chock Full O' Nuts. In 1957, Robinson joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and became the chairman of the Freedom Fund.
  • Congress of Racial Equality

    Congress of Racial Equality
    websiteIn April of 1947 CORE sent eight white and eight black men into the upper South to test a Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in interstate travel unconstitutional. CORE gained national attention for this Journey of Reconciliation when four of the riders were arrested in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and three, including Bayard Rustin, were forced to work on a chain gang.
  • Brown v Board of Education

    Brown v Board of Education
    websiteIn U.S. history, any of the laws that enforced racial segregation in the South between the end of Reconstruction in 1877 and the beginning of the civil rights movement in the 1950s.The practices of comprehensive racial segregation known as "Jim Crow" emerged, and racial separation becomes entrenched.
  • Sweatt v Painter

    Sweatt v Painter
    website
    In 1946, Heman Sweatt, a black man, applied to the School of Law at the University of Texas, which, like all other Texas law schools at the time, refused to admit blacks. When his application was rejected, Sweatt sued the school, whose president was named Theophilus Painter. The Texas trial court delayed the ruling for 6 months to give the state time to build a separate law school just for blacks. The court claimed that “separate but equal” facilities.
  • Brown v Board of Education

    Brown v Board of Education
    On May 17, 1954, in a case argued by NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall, the Supreme Court ruled in a unanimous decision that the "separate but equal" doctrine was unconstitutional because it violated Fourteenth Amendment rights by separating students solely on the classification of the color of their skin.
  • Montgomery bus boycott

    Montgomery bus boycott
    website
    When Rosa Parks refused on the afternoon of Dec. 1, 1955, to give up her bus seat so that a white man could sit, it is unlikely that she fully realized the forces she had set into motion and the controversy that would soon swirl around her.
  • The Southern Manifesto

    The Southern Manifesto
    website
    The manifesto was signed by 101 politicians (99 Southern Democrats and two Republicans) from Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.The Southern Manifesto accused the Supreme Court of "clear abuse of judicial power.
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference
    SCLC’s first major campaign, the Crusade for Citizenship began in late 1957, sparked by the civil rights bill then pending in Congress. The idea for the crusade was developed at SCLC’s August 1957 conference, where 115 African American leaders laid the groundwork for the crusade.
  • Civil Rights Act passed

    Civil Rights Act passed
    Congress finally passed limited Civil Rights Acts in 1957 and 1960, but they offered only moderate gains. As a result of the 1957 Act, the United States Commission on Civil Rights was formed to investigate, report on, and make recommendations to the President concerning civil rights issues. Sit-ins, boycotts, Freedom Rides, the founding of organizations such as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), local demands for inclusio
  • Little Rock- Central High School

    Little Rock- Central High School
    website
    American Civil Rights Movement, nine black students enrolled at formerly all-white Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in September 1957, testing a landmark 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in public schools unconstitutional.
  • Greensboro sit-in

    Greensboro sit-in
    websiteThe Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960,[2] which led to the Woolworth department store chain removing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.[3] While not the first sit-ins of the Civil Rights Movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action, and also the most well-known sit-ins of the Civil Rights Movement. These sit-ins led to increased national sentiment at a crucial period in US history.
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC)

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC)
    website
    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded in April 1960, by young people who had emerged as leaders of the sit-in protest movement initiated on February 1 of that year by four black college students in Greensboro, North Carolina. Although Martin Luther King, Jr. and others had hoped that SNCC would serve as the youth wing of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the students remained fiercely independent of King.
  • Congress of Racial Equality

    Congress of Racial Equality
    websiteBy the end of 1961, CORE had 53 affiliated chapters, and they remained active in southern civil rights activities for the next several years. CORE participated heavily in President Kennedy's Voter Education Project (VEP) and also co-sponsored the 1963 March on Washington.
  • Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC

    Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC
    SNCC’s emergence as a force in the southern civil rights movement came largely through the involvement of students in the 1961 Freedom Rides, designed to test a 1960 Supreme Court ruling that declared segregation in interstate travel facilities unconstitutional. The Congress of Racial Equality initially sponsored the Freedom Rides that began in May 1961, but segregationists viciously attacked riders traveling through Alabama. Students from Nashville, under the leadership of Diane Nash, resolved.
  • Congress Of Racial Equality

    Congress Of Racial Equality
    websiteIn May of 1961 CORE organized the Freedom Rides, modeled after their earlier Journey of Reconciliation. Near Birmingham, Alabama a bus was firebombed and riders were beaten by a white mob. Despite this violent event, CORE continued to locate field secretaries in key areas of the South to provide support for the riders.
  • Jame Meredith

    Jame Meredith
    On May 31, 1961, Meredith, with backing of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi, alleging that the university had rejected him only because of his race, as he had a highly successful record of military service and academic courses. The case went through many hearings, after which the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit ruled that Meredith had the right to be admitted to the state school.
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    websiteFreedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960),[3] which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.[4] The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them.
  • James Meredith

    James Meredith
    website
    James H. Meredith, who in 1962 became the first African American to attend the University of Mississippi.Three years later, Meredith returned to the public eye when he began his March Against Fear. On June 6, just one day into the march, he was sent to a hospital by a sniper’s bullet. Other civil rights leaders, including Martin Luther King, Jr., and Stokely Carmichael, arrived to continue the march on his behalf.
  • Twenty-fourth amendment

    Twenty-fourth amendment
    Website
    http://goo.gl/ecffdq Ratification of the Twenty-fourth Amendment marked the culmination of an endeavor begun in Congress in 1939 to effect elimination of the poll tax as a qualification for voting in federal elections. Property qualifications extend back to colonial days, but the poll tax itself as a qualification was instituted in eleven States of the South following the end of Reconstruction.
  • Congress of Racial Equality

    Congress of Racial Equality
    websiteBy 1963 CORE had already shifted attention to segregation in the North and West where two thirds of the organization's chapters were located. In an effort to build CORE's credibility as a black-protest organization, leadership in these northern chapters had become almost entirely black.
  • "Letter from Birminham jail"

    "Letter from Birminham jail"
    website
    The Letter from Birmingham Jail (also known as "Letter from Birmingham City Jail" and "The Negro Is Your Brother") is an open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King, Jr. The letter defends the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism. It says that people have a moral responsibility to break unjust laws and to take direct action rather than waiting potentially forever for justice to come through the courts. Responding to being referre
  • "Letters from Birminham jail"

    "Letters from Birminham jail"
    In 1963 Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and sent to jail because he and others were protesting the treatment of blacks in Birmingham, Alabama. A court had ordered that King could not hold protests in Birmingham. Birmingham in 1963 was a hard place for blacks to live in. Everything was segregated, from businesses to churches to libraries. Blacks faced constant discrimination and the constant threat of violence.
  • March on Washtington

    March on Washtington
    website
    ven as the inspiring words of Martin Luther King Jr.’s famous “I Have a Dream” speech rang out from the Lincoln Memorial during the historic March on Washington in August of 1963, racial relations in the segregated South were marked by continued violence and inequality.
  • Bombing of Birmingham church

    Bombing of Birmingham church
    On September 15, a bomb exploded before Sunday morning services at the 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama–a church with a predominantly black congregation that served as a meeting place for civil rights leaders. Four young girls were killed and many other people injured; outrage over the incident and the violent clash between protesters and police that followed helped draw national attention to the hard-fought, often dangerous struggle for civil rights for African Americans.
  • Congress of Racial Equality

    Congress of Racial Equality
    websiteIn 1964 CORE participated in the Mississippi Freedom Summer project; three activists killed that summer in an infamous case, James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner, were members of CORE.
  • Civil Rights Act passed

    Civil Rights Act passed
    website
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the nation's premier civil rights legislation. The Act outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, required equal access to public places and employment, and enforced desegregation of schools and the right to vote. It did not end discrimination, but it did open the door to further progress.
  • Mississippi Freedom Summer

    Mississippi Freedom Summer
    Website http://goo.gl/n93FJq
    President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a landmark bill that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. The powers given to "enforce the constitutional right to vote" are weak at first, but are supplemented in later years. Image http://goo.gl/C5ucr8
  • Malcolm X assinationated

    Malcolm X assinationated
    Website http://goo.gl/H7geI
    On February 21, 1965, the black leader Malcolm X was assassinated as he started to address a rally in New York City. Malcolm X was a controversial figure. He had spent time in jail as a street criminal. As spokesman for Elijah Mohammed's Nation of Islam, he articulated a virulently anti-white program of black self-help. After a trip to Mecca, he broke with Elijah Mohammed and his anti-white policies to form an independent political group.
  • Selma to Montgomery march

    Selma to Montgomery march
    website http://goo.gl/3m770b
    In what would become known as "Bloody Sunday," John Lewis and Hosea Williams lead about 600 people on what is intended to be a march from Selma to Montgomery. But Alabama state troopers, some on horseback, and Clark and his deputies meet the marchers at the Edmund Pettus Bridge. When the marchers refuse to disperse, they are driven back with billy clubs and tear gas, with 16 being hospitalized and at least 50 others injured.
  • Voting Rights Act approved

    Voting Rights Act approved
    Website http://goo.gl/vlqBqW
    President Johnson signed the resulting legislation into law on August 6, 1965. Section 2 of the Act, which closely followed the language of the 15th amendment, applied a nationwide prohibition against the denial or abridgment of the right to vote on the literacy tests on a nationwide basis. Among its other provisions, the Act contained special enforcement provisions targeted at those areas of the country where Congress believed the potential for discrimination.
  • Black Panthers

    Black Panthers
    Website https://goo.gl/oS51n3
    In October of 1966, in Oakland California, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The Panthers practiced militant self-defense of minority communities against the U.S. government, and fought to establish revolutionary socialism through mass organizing and community based Scholars have characterized the Black Panther Party as the most influential black movement organization of the late 1960s.
  • King Assassinated

    King Assassinated
    Website http://goo.gl/jg2Hh5
    He organized a Poor People’s Campaign to focus on the issue, including an interracial poor people’s marchon Washington, and in March 1968 traveled to Memphis in support of poorly treated African-American sanitation workers. On March 28, a workers’ protest march led by King ended in violence and the death of an African-American teenager. King left the city but vowed to return in early April to lead another demonstration.
  • King Assassinated

    King Assassinated
    Just after 6 p.m. on April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King Jr. is fatally shot while standing on the balcony outside his second-story room at the Lorraine Motelin Memphis, Tennessee. The civil rights leader was in Memphis to support a sanitation workers’ strike and was on his way to dinner when a bullet struck him in the jaw and severed his spinal cord. King was pronounced dead after his arrival.
  • Malcome X

    Malcome X
  • The watsons got to Birmingham

    The watsons got to Birmingham
  • To kill a Mockingbird

    To kill a Mockingbird
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    On May 19–21, 2011, the Freedom Rides were commemorated in Montgomery, Alabama, at the new Freedom Ride museum in the old Greyhound Bus terminal, where some of the violence had taken place in 1961. On May 22–26, 2011, the arrival of the Freedom Rides in Jackson, Mississippi was commemorated with a 50th Anniversary Reunion and Conference in the city.During commemorative events in February 2013 in Montgomery, Congressman John Lewis accepted the apologies of Chief Kevin Murphy of the Montgomer
  • Civil rights movement

    Civil rights movement
  • Brown girl dreaming

    Brown girl dreaming
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

    Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
    website
    The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was established in 1957, to coordinate the action of local protest groups throughout the South (King, ‘‘Beyond Vietnam,’’ 144). Under the leadership of Martin Luther King, Jr., the organization drew on the power and independence of black churches to support its activities. ‘‘This conference is called,’’ King wrote, with fellow ministers C. K. Steele and Fred Shuttlesworth in January 1957.