History of Instructional Technology

Timeline created by madikoban
In History
  • School Museums

    School Museums
    School museums gave students opportunities to learn through different media.
  • Instructional Films

    Instructional Films
    Works consisting of non-fiction films and video designed to teach, instruct, or train.
  • Instructional Radio

    Instructional Radio
    Uses audio technology to provide educational opportunities for students.
  • Television

    Television
    A system for transmitting visual images and sound that are reproduced on screens, mostly used to broadcast programs for entertainment, information, and education.
  • World War ll

    World War ll
    A war between the Axis and the Allies, beginning on September 1, 1939, with the German invasion of Poland and ending with the surrender of Germany on May 8, 1945, and of Japan on August 14, 1945.
  • Early Computers

    Early Computers
    Computers were fist used in education and training in the 1950's; these were called computer-assisted instructions (CAI).
  • Instructional Television

    Instructional Television
    Before the 1950's, there had been a number of instances in which television had been used for instructional purposes, but during the 1950's, there was tremendous growth.
  • Programmed Instruction

    Programmed Instruction
    The programmed instruction movement ran from the mid-1950's through the mid-1960's. Programmed instruction presents information in small steps, requires over responses to frequent questions, provides immediate feedback, and allows for learning self-pacing
  • Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

    Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
    Written by Benjamin Bloom; indicated that within the cognitive domain there were various types of learning outcomes, that objectives could be classified according to the type of learner behavior described therein, and that there was a hierarchical relationship among the various types of outcomes.
  • Sputnik

    Sputnik
    The first orbiting space satellite; in response to the launch, instructional materials developed funds.
  • Behavioral Objectives

    Behavioral Objectives
    The idea of the use of objectives was discussed and used by educators as far back as the early 1900's, but in the 1960's, specific behavioral objectives were recognized.
  • Criterion-Referenced Testing

    Criterion-Referenced Testing
    Intended to measure how well an individual can perform a particular behavior or set of behaviors, irrespective of how well others perform.
  • Instructional Design Models

    Instructional Design Models
    Individuals such as Gagné were the first to describe instructional design models, which include task analysis, objective specification, and criterion-referenced testing; these are all linked together to form instructional design models.
  • Conditions of Learning

    Conditions of Learning
    Written by Robert Gagné, this book describes five domains, or types, of learning outcomes.
  • Events of Instruction

    Events of Instruction
    In his book, Gagné describes nine teaching activities that he considered essential for promoting the attainment of any type of learning outcome.
  • Formative Evaluation

    Formative Evaluation
    In response to the launch of Sputnik, instructional materials were created, then revised, by Michael Scriven. He indicated a revision would enable educators to evaluate the effectiveness of materials while they were still in their formative stages. He named this tryout and revision process formative evaluation.
  • Summative Evaluation

    Summative Evaluation
    Michael Scriven contrasted formative evaluation with summative evaluation, which is the testing of instructional materials after they are in their final form.
  • Media Research

    Media Research
    Studies conducted to identify how various features, or attributes, of audio-visual affected learning; the goal being to identify those attributes that would facilitate learning in given situations.
  • Cognitive Psychology

    Cognitive Psychology
    During the 1980's, there was a growing interest in how the principles of cognitive psychology could be applied in the instructional design process.
  • Internet

    Internet
    Advances in computers and the Internet have led to a rapid increase in instructional learning. However, the Internet began in 1990 when computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web
  • Constructivism

    Constructivism
    Constructivism is a collection of similar views of learning and instruction that gained increasing popularity throughout the decade.