History of Special Education Timeline

Timeline created by shunt032
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in schools by race was not constitutional. It was the first time that the federal government had stepped in and advocated for students who were experiencing inequality. This ruling set a path for future legislation for individuals with disabilities. https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka
  • Elementary & Secondary Education Act

    Elementary & Secondary Education Act
    This act began the role of the federal government in protecting and providing for students who came from disadvantaged backgrounds. It ensured equal access to the public education system. It was a cornerstone to LBJ's "War on Poverty"
  • Education of the Handicapped Act

    Education of the Handicapped Act
    The Elementary & Secondary Education Act was revised in 1970 and created the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA) and continued the support for state run programs for individuals with disabilities. EHA consolidated a number of separate Federal grant programs related to children with disabilities under one statute.
  • Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    This challenged the constitutionality of excluding individuals with mental retardation in public schools, ruled the state is not allowed to deny any mental retarded child access to free public education/training. This was the first major legal case to provide equality to students with disabilities.
  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act

    Vocational Rehabilitation Act
    This Act prevented private organizations that use federal funds, or any state organization, from discriminating against persons with disabilities solely based on their disabilities. This Act made a significant difference in the provision of equal opportunities and prohibited discrimination not only in public education but in the work place as well. It also created rights of persons with disabilities through affirmative action programs.
  • Education of All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)

    Education of All Handicapped Children Act (EHA)
    Congress enacted this to ensure that all children with disabilities received an appropriate education through special education related services. It supported states in protecting the rights of, and meeting the individual needs of, those with disabilities and their families. This would later be expanded to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    The United States Congress reauthorized EHA and changed to IDEA with the goal to provide children with disabilities that same opportunities as children without disabilities. EHA was replaced in order to focus more on the individuals, as opposed to the condition the individuals had. Unlike EHA, IDEA promoted research and technology development, details on transition programs, and programs that educate children in their neighboring schools, not just in separate schools.
  • No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

    No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
    NCLB authorizes several federal education programs that are administered by the states, it is a reauthorization of the Elementary & Secondary Education Act. The major focus is to close student achievement gaps by providing fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high quality education. It also requires each state to establish state academic standards and a state testing system that meets the federal requirements.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

    Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
    Barack Obama signed this Act as a commitment to equal opportunity for all students, it replaced the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2002. ESSA includes many components of NCLB but it also provides additional opportunities for schools when students aren't progressing adequately. ESSA also shifts students accountability from federal government to state and local control. https://youtu.be/zWQGmU-J80Q
  • Endrew F v. Douglas County School District

    Endrew F v. Douglas County School District
    In this ruling, the Supreme Court issued a decision stating that under the IDEA schools must offer an IEP reasonably calculated to enable a child with disabilities to make progress in light of their disability. It emphasized that IDEA aims for grade level advancement for children with disability who can be educated in the general education classroom. It also rejected the idea of stricter equal access/opportunity standard for free and appropriate education.