Special needs children in developing countries opt

History of Special Education and Inclusive Education Timeline

  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 1954
    The first significant court case to influence special education by establishing a right to an equal education regardless of race, gender, or disability. This major Supreme Court case was actually five different cases joined into one as they all concerned segregation in public schools. Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the court ruling that the notion of "separate but equal" has no place in public education.
  • The Rehabilitation Act of 1973

    The Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    The first legislation to address equal access for people with disabilities subsequently created rights for them. This act prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in any programs conducted by federal agencies, or any programs receiving federal assistance, or in any federal employment. Moreover, this act removed architectural, transportation, and employment barriers for individuals with disabilities.
  • Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975

    Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1975
    President Gerald Ford signed this federal law now known as IDEA requiring public schools to provide appropriate educational services for all children with disabilities between ages 3 and 21. The Act required all public schools to evaluate children with disabilities and create an educational plan that would best meet the child's needs. This included a provision that children should be placed in the least restrictive environment possible.
  • Board of Education v. Rowley 1982

    Board of Education v. Rowley 1982
    The first Supreme Court special education case in which the EHA was interpreted for the first time and free appropriate public education was defined. The parents of first-grader Amy Rowley, who had a significant hearing impairment, requested she be provided a sign language interpreter, but the school refused. The court ruled that the intent of the Act is to open the doors to public education and not to guarantee any level of education once inside.
  • Americans w/ Disabilities Act 1990

    Americans w/ Disabilities Act 1990
    The ADA is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against individuals with disabilities in all areas of life, including school. This covers both mental and physical disabilities and the condition does not need to be permanent or severe to be considered a disability. Examples of public accommodations that must be made to public structures and buildings under the ADA include removing barriers and/or making alterations for accessibility.
    ADA Video Breakdown
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1990

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 1990
    EHA became IDEA and included supplemental funding for state and local programs. IDEA now mandated services for children ages three to five years old. Even with amendments made, low expectations for students with disabilities remained and there was little accountability for them. History of IDEA
  • AAPD is Founded 1995

    AAPD is Founded 1995
    American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD) is a nonprofit organization that advocates for the rights of people with disabilities. The organization describes itself as a convener, connecter, and catalyst for change, increasing the political and economic power of people with disabilities. Justin Dart, considered the father of the Americans with Disabilities Act, is one of the founders of AAPD. AAPD Website
  • Amendments to IDEA 1997

    Amendments to IDEA 1997
    IDEA shifted from solely providing public education to providing meaningful and measurable programs for all children with disabilities, this included programs for research and technology. Amendments made included a push towards more parent involvement. The law now required Individualized Education Plans to be revised if the student was not meeting its goals.
  • No Child Left Behind Act 2002

    No Child Left Behind Act 2002
    President George W. Bush signed this act with the purpose of ensuring that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education, including students with disabilities. The major focus of No Child Left Behind is to close student achievement gaps by increasing accountability through testing. This Act also recognizes children with disability's ability to participate in general education classrooms and standardized testing.
  • Amendments to IDEA 2004

    Amendments to IDEA 2004
    Congress made amendments to IDEA, initiating early intervention for students, greater accountability, improved educational outcomes, and higher standards for teachers who teach special education classes. IDEA 2004 introduced response to intervention (RTI) as a general education initiative that changed the way schools and communities view struggling children. IDEA: Federal Law vs. State Law