History of Special Education and Inclusive Education

  • Raised Point Alphabet

    Raised Point Alphabet
    Louis Braille was French educator who accidentally blinded himself in one with a stitching awl from his fathers leather workshop. In 1829, he published Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them. This became the way blind people communicated with the outside world and how others were able to communicate with them.
  • Perkins School for the Blind

    Perkins School for the Blind
    Perkins School for the Blind opened up in 1829 and was the first school in the United States that was solely dedicated to educating the blind. Dr. John Dix Fisher was the person who had the desire to open up an education center for the blind. With the help of founder Direct Samuel Gridley Howe and donor Thomas Handasyd Perkins, they were able to make it into reality.
  • Inauguration of College for the Deaf

    Inauguration of College for the Deaf
    Abraham Lincoln signs a charter establishing Gallaudet University as the first college for the deaf. Till this day it is the only institution of higher learning in the U.S. dedicated specifically to the education of deaf persons.
  • American School of the Deaf

    American School of the Deaf
    On April 15, 1871 the first school for educating deaf person was opened up in Connecticut. This was all possible thanks to congregational minister Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet along with the support of Dr. Mason Cogswell and other philanthropist. Gallaudet had embarked on a journey around Europe, to gain more knowledge on the art of educating deaf persons. He then came across a deaf teacher, Lauren Clerc, at a school for the deaf in Paris, France and enlisted her.
  • Beginning of Special Education

    Beginning of Special Education
    Teachers in public schools were beginning to notice how students with disabilities were being labeled as "backward" or "feebleminded". This motivated them to make special classes for them so teachers can educate them. In 1896, Rhode Island opened the first public special education class in the U.S.
  • Council for Exceptional Children

    Council for Exceptional Children
    CEC (Council for Exception Children) was created by a group of students who took an interest in how to help kids with disabilities. It's an a non-profit organization who is sustained by special education professionals and other who work for students with exceptionalities. They seek to advocate for appropriate governmental policies.
  • Cuyahoga Council for the Retarded Child

    Cuyahoga Council for the Retarded Child
    The Cuyahoga Council for the Retarded Child was established in 1933. This council is led by parents of children with developmental disabilities. Their purpose is to be of assistance to kids of the region who have been excluded form their public schools.
  • Classification of Autism

    Classification of Autism
    A child psychiatrist named Leo Kanner who attended Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, published an article with the first systematic description of early infantile autism. His conclusion was that this was a neurodevelopment disorder. The kids with this disorder have an innate ability to form the usual, biologically provided contact with people.
  • National Association of Retarded Citizens

    National Association of Retarded Citizens
    Formerly known as the Nation Association of Parents and Friends of Retarded Children, this association was formed during a conference. It's main goal was to promote the general welfare of these student disabilities, all ages and everywhere they are. Whether at home, in the community, institutions, or in public, private, and religious groups.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This court case which is well known for defeating segregation in school was also the first significant case to influence special education. Brown v. Board opened up a new understanding amongst the people that regardless of race, gender, or disability, every one has right to public education.
  • ESEA

    ESEA (Elementary and Secondary Education Act) is a statue that funds primary and secondary schooling. In the act it is mandated that funds are authorized for professional development, instructional materials, resources to support educational programs, and the promotion of parental involvement.
  • PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    PARC v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    The court entered a consent decrees entered by all the parties. They declared several state laws unconstitutional and required the state to evaluate and put all mental students with disabilities ages 6-21 in proper publicly funded education setting. At that time many other states had similar laws that prevented children with disabilities from getting a free public education.
  • Section 504

    Section 504
    This is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability. It was applied to public, elementary and secondary schools, and other institutions. This gave the right for people with disabilities to participate and have access to program benefits and services. Organizations and employers were forbidden to exclude these individuals from receiving these benefits because of their disability. Video
  • Public Law 94-142

    Public Law 94-142
    EAHCA (Education for All Handicapped Children) also known as Public Law 94-142, is a federal law that was enacted by the United States Congress in 1975. It requires public schools to provide appropriate education for all students disabilities between ages 3-21. This required all public schools to accept federal funds for their education and also, a free meal a day for children with physical and mental disabilities.
  • ADA

    on July 26, 1990 ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) was signed by President George H.W. Bush. This was the most sweeping affirmation of rights for the disabled in American history, into a law. This began when people with disabilities began to challenge societal barriers that excluded them form their community. This act prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities in several areas.
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    ON January 8th, 2002 President George H.W. Bush signs the No Child Left Behind Act into a law. Its purpose is to close student achievement gaps by providing all children with fair and equal opportunity to obtain a high-quality education. This created new standards and goals for the nations public schools and implemented tough corrective measures for schools that didn't meet them. By popular opinion, it is said to be a failed experiment.
  • ESSA

    On December 10, 2015 President Barak Obama sign the ESSA (Every Student Succeeds Act). This represents good news for the nations school because this bipartisan measure reauthorizes the 50-year-old Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The longstanding commitment of equal opportunity for all students.