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History of Special Education

  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Started in Topeka, Kansas and moved all the way to a U.S. Supreme Court case dealing with the segregation in schools. The court ruled that desegregation of all public school systems in the nation happen for that separate facilities were thought as unequal and unconstitutional. This insurance of equal rights for all students stressed the importance of education and making equality an underlying part of the Constitution. This brought out the stage for many other acts dealing with rights of all.
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    Short History of Special Education

    Hulett, K. E. (2009). Legal aspects of special education. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.
  • Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (BEH) Created

    Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (BEH) Created
    Under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act congress added a sixth title which was an amendment known as PL 89-750. BEH was responsible for overseeing and supervising EHA and IDEA. Though this did not mandate education of students with disabilities it showed change in that other programs were being regulated.
  • Supreme Court Decisions

    Supreme Court Decisions
    Both PARC v. Pennsylvania and Mills v. D.C. Board of Education argued that the constitutional rights under the 14th amendment for equal protection of students with disabilities was being denied. FAPE and safeguards though due processing where results of these court cases. Both of these brought out the basis for challenging the policies that denying equal education opportunities for any student especially those with disabilities. As well as showing that schools must provide the services needed.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
    A civil rights law that protected individuals nation wide from discrimination based on their disability within any public setting. The students had legal rights to FAPE and LRE as well as getting accommodations and modifications as needed. This was important for history as it was seen to be the first comprehensive act that aided to those students with disabilities in the equal rights of all public facilities. It allows humans with handicaps to have the full enjoyment and benefit of any right.
  • The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

    The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
    Under IDEA this was the regulation tool of confidentiality allowing the parents the right of access. This allowed parents the right to any information regarding their child and the need of their consent to have this information shared. The information that is collected and maintained must only be used by schools to define and provided appropriate educational services. This helps those in special education have the ability to be fairly judged in new situations.
  • PL 94-142 is enacted-Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    PL 94-142 is enacted-Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    With Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) and the help of some Supreme Court cases, it was finally mandated that all school districts educate all students no mater the disability or handicap one may have. This meant students were no longer being denied education due to their impairment. This legislation piece assured that FAPE and LRE as well as safeguards for students with disabilities be given equally to all students. This achievement in history showed the support and difference of advocay
  • Final federal regulations of EAHCA are released

    Final federal regulations of EAHCA are released
    This federal regulation brought on more power and influence into the special education programs throughout the states. The regulations were enacted at the beginning of the school year in 1977 and gave rules at which school districts must follow within their educational system. This lead to more defined special education classrooms following rules that provided students the best opportunity possible within the limits of the district that one lives in.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    This civil rights law branches from Section 504 by broadening the services needing to be provided for any person with a disability. Furthering protection from discrimination ADA defines the meaning of disability and the act comprises of five titles at which denote the areas that one must receive accommodations and services. This clear understanding addresses more consistent and enforceable standards on the behalf of individuals with disabilities and the fourteenth amendment.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    What was formerly known as EAHCA was changed to IDEA. With this change brought on many adjustments from the old law. IDEA is organized under parts A-D with the biggest change from 1975 being the addition of transitional services to those students leaving high school and entering postsecondary life styles. IDEA is designed to meet the unique needs of each child’s individual differences. With IDEA reaching out to more specific students under its thirteen categories teachers can give more aid.
  • IDEA Reauthorized

    IDEA Reauthorized
    This adjusted the law by strengthening the general curriculum and transforming the evaluation and reevaluation processes. In this enactment the IEP procedures had changes. It now involved the requirement of general education teachers to be present at IEP team meetings as well as requiring all students to be apart of state and district wide assessments. This was important to involve those students in special education as a need to be meeting the general education requirements.
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act
    This law is trying to level the playing field by closing the achievement gap between all students. This major piece of domestic legislation requires states to have their own academic standards that will lead to their students to have grade level proficiency in reading and math by 2014. States have to provide annual assessments of at least 95% of all their students and show yearly progress in their education services.
  • IDEA Reauthorized

    IDEA Reauthorized
    Within the several changes from 1997 the biggest was more accountability on the state and local district levels. Schools were now to provided adequate instruction and intervention for students to keep them in the general education room as much as possible as well as being able to show data on the outcomes been seen. This was the joining point of NCLB and IDEA in a focus on the students in with special needs being apart of the regular assessments. Also showing modified assessments and standards