History of Inclusive Education

  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    All persons born or naturalized in the U.S., and subject to juridiction thereof, are citizens of the U.S. and of the State where they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the U.S.; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
  • Plessy V. Ferguson

    Plessy V. Ferguson
    The Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" accomodations or services DOES NOT violate the 14th amendment according to due process and equal protection to citizens, a case that was used to justify Jim Crow laws sanctioning facilities for African American citizens.
  • The Elementary and Secondary School Act

    The Elementary and Secondary School Act
    Formed part of Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty. Primary focus was on improving educational opportunity for economically disadvantaged students.
  • PL 93-112, Vocational Rehibilitation Act of 1973, Section 504

    PL 93-112, Vocational Rehibilitation Act of 1973, Section 504
    Individuals with disabilities cannot be excluded from participation in, denied benefits of, or subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
  • PL 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    PL 94-142, Education for All Handicapped Children Act
    A free and appropriate public education must be provided for all children with disabilities in the U.S. (Birth to five year olds may be excluded in some states.). Mandated were procedures for identification, due process, least restrictive environment, IEPs, non-discriminatory evaluation, confidentiality and personnel development, and appropriate, public education at no cost to parents.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

    Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
    Provides civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities for equal opportunity in employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
  • PL 101-476, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    PL 101-476, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    This law, which amends the Education of the Handicapped Act (1975), puts new emphasis on meeting the needs of minorities with disabilities, improving personnel recruitment and retention, and advancing early intervention services. IDEA mandates that schools plan for a student's transition to post-school services.
  • Amendments to IDEA

    Amendments to IDEA
    Requires statement in IEP of non-participation in general ed.; how students will be included, with appropriate accommodations and modifications, in state and district-mandated tests; at least one general ed. teacher must be involved in IEP development, being informed of responsibilities in implementing the IEP, the right to FAPE ends if student graduates from high school with regular diploma, but not with another type of diploma; child may be removed up to 10 days (if no pattern of removal is sh