History of IDT

By tac276
  • First School Museum Opened

    The first school museum was opened in 1905 in St. Louis. These museuems were the first step in instructional media as they provided supporting resources to instructors such as exhibits, photographs, slides, films, charts, etc. (pages 17-18 of textbook)
  • Visual Instruction Movement Begins

    The Visual Instruction Movement began in the early 1900s when Keystone View published a teacher's guide to latern slides and stereographs. The first catalog of instructional films was then published in 1910 and later that year, a school system in Rochester, NY became the first to adopt the use of films during regular instruction. (page 18 of textbook)
  • Audiovisual Instruction Movement

    During the 1920s and 1930s, technological advances related to broadcasting and sound recordings inscreased interest in the this medium as a form of education and led to the beginning of the audiovisual instruction movement. (page 18)
  • Radio Viewed As Game-Changer

    By the early 1930s, many audiovisual enthusiasts were predicting radio to revolutionize education. (page 19 of textbook)
  • Merge of Major Visual Instruction Organizations

    The three existing professional organizations for visual instruction merged in 1932 and leadership was consolidated within the Department of Visual Instruction (DVI). This was considered a major event in instructional media's history. (page 18 of textbook)
  • World War II

    World War II led to the growth of audiovisual instruction (filmstrips, recordings, films, etc.) for the purpose of training potential soldiers as well as preparing civilians for war-related work in the industry. This effort was quite successful with Germany's Chief of Staff quoted for saying: "We had everything calculated perfectly expect the speed with which America was able to train its people." (page 19 of textbook)
  • WWII: Instructional Design

    Psychologists and researchers devloped training plans and strategies for the military. Their work was the basis for evaluating recruits to properly place them in the correct training program and then developing the actual training program itself to best fit the needs of the trainees. (page 23 of textbook)
  • Instructional Television

    During the 1950s, there was major growth in the use of instructional television. The growth came about in thanks to the FCCs decision to dedicate 242 channels for strictly educational purposes. The Ford Foundation also provided $170 million for use to improve instructional television.
  • Computer Aided Instruction

    During the 1950s, researchers at IBM developed the first computer aided instruction (CAI) program to be used in public schools. During the 1960s, CAI was also used in the university setting as well. (page 20 of textbook)
  • Bloom's Taxonomy

    Benjamin Bloom authors the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" which describes the different types of learning outcomes that is related to objectives and the learner's behavior. (page 24 of textbook)
  • Sputnik

    After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the US responded by investing millions of dollars into its own math and science education programs (page 25 of textbook)
  • Period: to

    Birth of Instructional Theory and Active Research

    Theory and Research pointed to the belief that instructional strategies best accounted for learning (page 46 of textbook).
  • Focus on Objectives

    Robert Mager authors "Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction" which describes the proper way to determine the objectives of a lesson and how behavior relates to those objectives. (page 24 of textbook)
  • Instructional TV Hype Wanes

    By the mid-1960s, interest in using TV for educational purposes began to die down. In fact, in 1963 the Ford Foundation decided to shift their focus to public television rather than educational television as previously mentioned. Although the hype of instructional television began to wane, it still served as a resourceful tool during the instruction process. (page 20 of textbook)
  • 1963 Definition of IDT

    First definition to be approved by major professional organizations was that IDT focused on "the design and use of messages which control the learning process." (page 2)
  • The Conditions of Learning

    In 1965, Robert Gagne wrote "The Conditions of Learning" which served as yet another important event in the history of instructional design. The book described the five types of learning outcomes as well as the nine events of instruction. He was a master of learning hierarchies and the premise that subordinate skills must be learned before attempting to obtain superordinate ones. (pages 24-25 of textbook)
  • Formative Evaluation

    Michael Scriven noticed the ineffectiveness of some instructional materials and proposed the idea that instructional materials should be examined by educators and students before being finalized. This revision and evaluation process became known as formative evaluation and replaced summative evaluation which didn't evaluate or test until it was completely finished. (page 25 of textbook)
  • Nearly All ID Models Now Contain ADDIE

    The ADDIE (analyze, design, develop, implement, and excecute) model becomes a key component of nearly all instructional design theories (page 9).
  • Military Use of Instructional Design

    By 1975, the US military adopted instructional design models for the purpose of training. Business and those in the academic setting also followed suit. (page 26 of textbook)
  • 1977 Definition of IDT

    The accepted definition of IDT was updated to be "a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organizations, for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions involved in the learning process." (page 3)
  • Period: to

    Shift to Cognitive Learning Theory and Similar Theories

    Instructional strategies were designed to take into account how people processed and structured the information they were attempting to learn (page 46).
  • Computers in Schools

    Due in large part to the personal computer being available to the general public, it was reported that more than 40% of all elementary schools and 75% of secondary schools in the US were using computers for instructional purposes. (page 20 of textbook)
  • Multiple Uses of Computer

    During the 1990s, designers began to have interest in not only using computers during the learning process, but also as an aid to improve job performance. This eventually became widely accepted as you can see from a 2008 survey that showed 75% of employees within the business sector used knowledge bases daily.
  • Period: to

    Shift to Constructivism and Situated Learning

    Saw a rise in the qualitative side of cognition research. A greater importance was placed on authentic practice and community participation and less about procedural learning (page 46).
  • 1994 Definition of IDT

    IDT definition was updated once again to now mean: the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. (page 3)
  • Growing Computer Use

    In 1195, it was reported that schools in the US had one computer for every nine students (far off from Papert's prediction of one computer for each student by 1990). Although there was growing adoption of the computer, their use for instructional purposes was disappointing. Schools mainly used computers for drill and practice with younger students and to teach computer-related skills to high school students. (page 21 of textbook)
  • 4C/ID Model Introduced

    Merrienboer introduces the 4C/ID Model that focuses on learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice
  • Period: to

    Importance of Practice, Engagement, and Experience

    Growth of situatied learning and stressing of engaging the learning to be an active participant in the process. Learning through experience (page 46).
  • Pebble in a Pond ID Approach

    Merrill introduces the Pebble in a Pond approach which starts with the content to be taught and focusing on the progression achieved after completing various tasks (page 12).
  • Business Training Using Computers

    A survey from over 300 companies showed that over 30% of all training conducted is presented via technology and 24% of that training online (page 21 of textbook)
  • 2008 AECT Definition of IDT

    The latest accepted definition is the "study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing technology resources." (page 4)
  • Computers Revolutionize Education

    A study conducted in 2009 showed that 45 states currently have online K-12 schools and that 57% of all public secondary schools provide students with access to online learning. Also, 93% of all classrooms had internet access. Reports also show that teachers are now utilizing technology like nevery before encouraging students to perform various tasks online and through the use of technology. (page 21 of textbook)