Guido Adler Devides the DisciplineHistorical musicology vs. Systematic musicology Systematic musicology included vergleichende Musikwissenschaft (comparative musicology), which eventually became known as ethnomusicology.
Alexander Ellis Creates the CentDeveloped the "cent," a universal system for measuring intervals. From "On the Musical Scales of Various Nations": Analyzing the scales (tone systems) of various non-European musical traditions, Ellis showed that the diversity of tone systems cannot be explained by a single physical law, as had been argued by earlier scholars.
Carl Stumpf Defines "Heterophony"Founds the Berliner-Phonogramm Archiv to study pitches for comparative musicology.
Studies of common features in non-Western music
Identifies a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line.
Examples: Japanese Gagaku, the gamelan music of Indonesia, kulintang ensembles of the Philippines and the traditional music of Thailand.
Ethnomusicology: 1900sFolk Music as Worthy of Study
Going to the field v. armchair ethnography
Erich von Hornbostel Enters the FieldHired as the 1st director of the Berliner Phonogramm-Archiv by Stumpf
Developed the Hornbostel-Sachs system of instrument classification
Saw the musical tunings used by various cultural groups as an essential element in determining the character of their music
Argued for a more anthopological approach to comp. musicology
Bartok and Kodaly Collect Folk MusicTraveled to the countryside to collect and research old Magyar folk melodies.
Curt Sachs Founds OrganologyPublishes "Real-Lexicon der Musikinstrumente', the most extensive catalog of instruments around the world seen at that point
Becomes one of the first modern organologists
Creates the Hornbostel-Sachs system in 1914
Hornbostel-Sachs SystemSystem for classifying instruments, divided into 4 categories:
Frances Densmore Researches for the BAEBAE - the Bureau of American Ethnology
Records traditional songs of the Blackfoot Mountain tribe
Cecil J. Sharp Collects Folk Songs in AppalachiaWith his assistant, Maud Karpeles
George Herzogestablished a consistent methodology for comparative musicological study and archival work
Ethnomusicology: 1920sStill Struggling to Separate from Musicology
International Council for Traditional Music Founded
Jaap Kunst Coins "Ethnomusicology"Replaces "comparative musicology" on the grounds that the field is not particularly comparative relative to other fields
Strengthens his own work with Javanese gamelan music
Ethnomusicology: 1950sThe struggle to define the field
Encouraging field research
Connections with linguistics
Charles Seeger "Studies in Musicology"Interested in vernacular musics and linguistics
Helped tie musicology to other disciplines and domains of culture.
Society for Ethnomusicology Founded
Alan Lomax Proposes CantometricsThe sampling and statistical analysis of folk music
Mantle Hood Proposes Bi-MusicalityNovel idea that people should learn to play the music they study
Musical approach to the field, as opposed to Merriam
Ethnomusicology: 1960sAnthropology v Music
Alan Merriam Publishes "The Anthropology of Music"Proposed a tripartite model for the study of ethnomusicology
Three analytic levels: conceptualization about music; behavior in relation to music; and the sound of music.
Later amended his original concept of "music in culture" to "music as culture."
Anthropological approach to music, as opposed to Mantle Hood
Ethnomusicology: 1970sEmic v. etic
Interest in universals
John Blacking "How Musical is Man"Music as humanly organized sound
Ethnomusicology: 1980sObjective v. Interpretive
Data v. Theory
Shift from examining music as product to music as process
Bruno Nettl Publishes 29 Issues and Concepts
Blacking Publishes "Music, Culture and Experience"Theory over data, contrasts with List
"Intention" contributes to musical meaning
George List "A Secular Sermon"Data over theory, contrasting Blacking
Empirical, measurable explinations always exist for observed phenomena
Ethnomusicology: 1990sConcern w/ ethics, obligations of researcher
Study of musical change
Study of popular music, urban music, mass media
Restudy, indigenous scholars
Abandonment of "authenticity" doctrines