History of Ethnomusicology

By SMess
  • Guido Adler Devides the Discipline

    Guido Adler Devides the Discipline
    Historical musicology vs. Systematic musicology Systematic musicology included vergleichende Musikwissenschaft (comparative musicology), which eventually became known as ethnomusicology.
  • Alexander Ellis Creates the Cent

    Alexander Ellis Creates the Cent
    Developed the "cent," a universal system for measuring intervals. From "On the Musical Scales of Various Nations": Analyzing the scales (tone systems) of various non-European musical traditions, Ellis showed that the diversity of tone systems cannot be explained by a single physical law, as had been argued by earlier scholars.
  • Carl Stumpf Defines "Heterophony"

    Carl Stumpf Defines "Heterophony"
    Founds the Berliner-Phonogramm Archiv to study pitches for comparative musicology.
    Studies of common features in non-Western music
    Identifies a type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line.
    Examples: Japanese Gagaku, the gamelan music of Indonesia, kulintang ensembles of the Philippines and the traditional music of Thailand.
  • Ethnomusicology: 1900s

    Ethnomusicology: 1900s
    Folk Music as Worthy of Study
    Going to the field v. armchair ethnography
  • Erich von Hornbostel Enters the Field

    Erich von Hornbostel Enters the Field
    Hired as the 1st director of the Berliner Phonogramm-Archiv by Stumpf
    Developed the Hornbostel-Sachs system of instrument classification
    Saw the musical tunings used by various cultural groups as an essential element in determining the character of their music
    Argued for a more anthopological approach to comp. musicology
  • Bartok and Kodaly Collect Folk Music

    Bartok and Kodaly Collect Folk Music
    Traveled to the countryside to collect and research old Magyar folk melodies.
  • Curt Sachs Founds Organology

    Curt Sachs Founds Organology
    Publishes "Real-Lexicon der Musikinstrumente', the most extensive catalog of instruments around the world seen at that point
    Becomes one of the first modern organologists
    Creates the Hornbostel-Sachs system in 1914
  • Hornbostel-Sachs System

    Hornbostel-Sachs System
    System for classifying instruments, divided into 4 categories:
    Idiophones
    Chordophones
    Membranophones
    Aerophones
  • Frances Densmore Researches for the BAE

    Frances Densmore Researches for the BAE
    BAE - the Bureau of American Ethnology
    Records traditional songs of the Blackfoot Mountain tribe
  • Cecil J. Sharp Collects Folk Songs in Appalachia

    Cecil J. Sharp Collects Folk Songs in Appalachia
    With his assistant, Maud Karpeles
  • George Herzog

    George Herzog
    established a consistent methodology for comparative musicological study and archival work
  • Ethnomusicology: 1920s

    Ethnomusicology: 1920s
    Still Struggling to Separate from Musicology
  • International Council for Traditional Music Founded

    International Council for Traditional Music Founded
  • Jaap Kunst Coins "Ethnomusicology"

    Jaap Kunst Coins "Ethnomusicology"
    Replaces "comparative musicology" on the grounds that the field is not particularly comparative relative to other fields
    Strengthens his own work with Javanese gamelan music
  • Ethnomusicology: 1950s

    Ethnomusicology: 1950s
    The struggle to define the field
    Encouraging field research
    Connections with linguistics
  • Charles Seeger "Studies in Musicology"

    Charles Seeger "Studies in Musicology"
    Interested in vernacular musics and linguistics
    Helped tie musicology to other disciplines and domains of culture.
  • Society for Ethnomusicology Founded

    Society for Ethnomusicology Founded
  • Alan Lomax Proposes Cantometrics

    Alan Lomax Proposes Cantometrics
    The sampling and statistical analysis of folk music
  • Mantle Hood Proposes Bi-Musicality

    Mantle Hood Proposes Bi-Musicality
    Novel idea that people should learn to play the music they study
    Musical approach to the field, as opposed to Merriam
  • Ethnomusicology: 1960s

    Ethnomusicology: 1960s
    Anthropology v Music
  • Alan Merriam Publishes "The Anthropology of Music"

    Alan Merriam Publishes "The Anthropology of Music"
    Proposed a tripartite model for the study of ethnomusicology
    Three analytic levels: conceptualization about music; behavior in relation to music; and the sound of music.
    Later amended his original concept of "music in culture" to "music as culture."
    Anthropological approach to music, as opposed to Mantle Hood
  • Ethnomusicology: 1970s

    Ethnomusicology: 1970s
    Emic v. etic
    Restudy
    Interest in universals
  • John Blacking "How Musical is Man"

    John Blacking "How Musical is Man"
    Music as humanly organized sound
    Not value-free
  • Ethnomusicology: 1980s

    Ethnomusicology: 1980s
    Objective v. Interpretive
    Data v. Theory
    Shift from examining music as product to music as process
  • Bruno Nettl Publishes 29 Issues and Concepts

    Bruno Nettl Publishes 29 Issues and Concepts
  • Blacking Publishes "Music, Culture and Experience"

    Blacking Publishes "Music, Culture and Experience"
    Theory over data, contrasts with List
    Thick description
    Biogrammar
    "Intention" contributes to musical meaning
  • George List "A Secular Sermon"

    George List "A Secular Sermon"
    Data over theory, contrasting Blacking
    Empirical, measurable explinations always exist for observed phenomena
  • Ethnomusicology: 1990s

    Ethnomusicology: 1990s
    Concern w/ ethics, obligations of researcher
    Study of musical change
    Study of popular music, urban music, mass media
    Historical ethnomusicology
    Restudy, indigenous scholars
    Abandonment of "authenticity" doctrines