History of Educational Technology

  • 100

    Sophists

    Sophists
    Sophists are to be considered as the ancestors of educational technology. They viewed teaching as technology, in that it combined the theoretical and the practical. They developed the seven liberal arts broken down into two categories, the Trivium and the Quadrivium. They were very well known for their Rhetoric and Instructional methods. They taught application through the Rhetoric method while the Instructional method explained the process of how the mind learns.
  • Period: 100 to

    History of Educational Technology

  • Sep 30, 1100

    Pierre Abelard

    Pierre Abelard
    He developed a scholastic method, which has a distinctive attitude about knowledge. This method brought a logical analysis and interpretation of theology. It led to a rise in European universities. Abelard and his students built a foundation of scientific experimentation.
  • Johann Amos Comenius

    Johann Amos Comenius
    Comenius believed that knowledge took place by studying natural objects and practical things. His ideas weren't noticed until the mid 19th century when it became clear that he was the best educator of his time. He proposed a school system that went from grades k-university. His belief was that everyone had the right to learn, not just those of a certain social status. His instructional method is similar to how we teach today. He is the first true modern forerunner in educational technology.
  • Harvard University

    Harvard University
    Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This was the first university founded in the United States.
  • The American Revolution

    The American Revolution
    The American Revolution, also known as the American Revolutionary War, began in 1775 and ended in 1783. The United States declared their independence from Britain in 1779 when the British surrendered at Yorktown, Virginia.
  • Industrial Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    The birth of the Industrial Revolution in Britain brought changes to Europe and America. Innovation, transportation, and communication took off during this time. This had a negative effect on education. Children were not going to school because they were working in factories. Approximately one fifth of the workers were under the age of 15. By the end of the 20th century America was the leading industrial nation.
  • American Education

    American Education
    The American education system was undeveloped compared to the Europe. American students would go years without showing any signs of improvement. Teachers managed their classrooms with fear. Public schools were only located in the New England area. At this time there was a constant struggle with education due to poor living conditions. Poor living conditions were a direct result from the development of industry.
  • Lancasterian System

    Lancasterian System
    Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838) of England developed the Lancasterian System. This was a system that started classroom organization and group instruction. The teacher to student ratio was 1:284. They teachers taught through drill and memorization. Students showed rapid results of improvement. This system was very popular due to its low cost. It created a huge increase in financial support for public school resources.
  • Johann Friedrich Herbart

    Johann Friedrich Herbart
    Herbart paved the way for the systems first instructional approach. He had four steps to this method. The first step was clearness. In this step learners were introduced to new ideas. The second step was association. This step creates a connection with the students' prior knowledge with new ideas. The third step was system. When information is presented in a certain order students can complete the process of apperception. The fourth step is method, which shows student comprehension.
  • Kindergarten Begins

    Kindergarten Begins
    Friedrich Froebel's greatest contribution to education was the invention of Kindergarten. He believed that children should be nourished much like plants in a garden, hints the name kindergarten. He set up a curriculum that involved games, songs, construction, gifts, and occupations. Gifts were geometric shapes, such as balls, cylinders, and cubes. Occupations were simply activities centered around learning. Many of his ideas are still prevalent in today's kindergarten classrooms.
  • The American Civil War

    The American Civil War
    The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 caused seven southern states to secede from the Union due to Lincoln's anti-slavery beliefs. These southern sates formed the Confederate States of America. After the war broke out in 1861 between the Confederates and the Union, four more states joined the Confederates. After four long years of battles, the Confederates surrendered in 1865 ending the battle between the States.
  • School Museums

    School Museums
    The first school museum was opened in 1905. School museums provided visual instruction through exhibits, stereographs, films, charts, and other displays.
  • Visual Education Movement

    Visual Education Movement
    Teachers used supplementary resources to teach. These resources were films, slides, and photographs. They were also refered to as "visual istruction" or "visual education."
  • World War I

    World War I
    World War I begins in 1914 and lasts until 1919. Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire took on Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, Japan, and the United States. Modern warfare, such as tanks, chemical weapons, and machine guns were being used for the first time during this war. The end of this war would lead to a rise in the power of Adolf Hitler in Germany.
  • Audiovisual Instruction Movement

    Audiovisual Instruction Movement
    Technological advances in radio broadcasting, sound recordings, and movies really sparked a change in education. Through the use of these resources, teachers were able to supply students with a whole new learning experience.
  • World War II

    World War II
    Hitler invaded Poland and World War II began. This was the most devistating war and it lasted six years. An estimated 45-60 million people were killed. The United States, along with other countries, used film projectors to simulate, train, and prepare their soldiers for the war.
  • American Institutes for Research

    American Institutes for Research
    The psychologists responsible for the successful training of military personel began organizations to continue solving instructional problems. One of the organizations is the American Institute for Research.
  • Computers in Education

    Computers in Education
    The 1950s began using computers as educational tools. Computer-assisted instruction, CAI, began with researchers at IBM that developed a program to be used in schools. The CAI didn't have a big impact on education at this point.
  • Instructional Television

    Instructional Television
    In 1952, the Federal Communications Commission set aside 242 channels for educational purposes. The United States started out with 17 educational stations in 1955 and by 1960 that number increased to 50.
  • Bloom's Taxonomy

    Bloom's Taxonomy
    Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues wrote the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. There research showed the different classifications of learning objectives.
  • Programmed Instruction Movement

    Programmed Instruction Movement
    B.F. Skinner wrote an article entitled The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching that sparked this movement. This had a major impact on the field of education.
  • Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement

    Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement
    In the early 1960s, criterion-referenced testing came on the sceen. Up until this point the standardized tests were norm-referenced tests that showed how students were performing. The criterion-referenced tests were different in that they measured how well an individual can perform a particular behavior. Most school teachers give criterion-referenced tests.
  • The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives

    The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives
    Rober Mager wrote a book called Preparing Objectives for Programmed Instruction. This book sold over 1.5 million copies and is currently in its third edition. It stressed the importance of writing objectives to teachers.
  • Domains of Learning

    Domains of Learning
    Robert M. Gagne, the wrote The Conditions of Learning. In this first edition, Gagne described five domains of learning outcomes: verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, and congnitive strategies. He provided descriptions of how each one promotes learning.
  • Formative and Summative Evaluations

    Formative and Summative Evaluations
    Michael Scriven pointed out the need to evaluate student progress through two types of assessments, formative and summative evaluations.
  • Shifting Terminology

    Shifting Terminology
    In the 1970s the terms previously used in this field were changed from audiovisual intruction to instructional technology and educational technology.
  • Microcomputers

    Microcomputers
    Microcomputers became available to the general public. There became an increase of computer use in education. In 1983, computers were being used for instructional purposes in more than 40% of all elementary schools and more than 75% of secondary schools in the United States.
  • The Internet

    The Internet
    In 1982 the Internet was introduced.
  • Cell Phone

    Cell Phone
    Martin Cooper was credited with inventing the first commercial cell phone in 1983.
  • Electronic Performance Support Systems

    Electronic Performance Support Systems
    During the 1990s there was a large increase in the use of electronic performance support systems. These are computer-based systems that are designed to help workers troubleshoot job tasks.
  • Computers Effect on Education

    Computers Effect on Education
    In 1995 computers still haven't had a big impact on education. Teachers were surveyed and they reported little to no instruction with computers. On the elementary levels, computers were used for drill and practice, where as in the secondary levels they were being used for teaching computer-based skills such as word processing. On the collegiate level, computers were being used for distance learning online through the use of the Internet.
  • Florida Virtual School

    Florida Virtual School
    In 1997 Florida Virtual School, FLVS, was founded. This was the country's first state-wide internet-based public high school.
  • Smart Phone

    Smart Phone
    Phillips comes out with a smart phone ahead of its time. It is the first phone to receive e-mails, faxes and access the internet.
  • WI-FI

    WI-FI
    In 1999 six companies got together to create the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA). The companies were Intel, 3com, Nokia, Aironet, Symbol, and Lucent. They came up with the name Wi-Fi. This was the beginning of wireless technology.
  • Apple Launches iPod

    Apple Launches iPod
    Since 2001 Apple has launched a series of iPods that bring music, videos, and photos to you in one small device.
  • Promethean

    Promethean
    In 2003 Promethean brings technology to the classroom by offering activboards, activvotes, slates, and many other resources that enhance the learning experience for students.
  • Ebook Readers

    Ebook Readers
    There are multiple ereaders out there including Amazon's Kindle, Barnes & Noble's Nook, and Apple's iPad are among the most popular. These have effected education in that textbooks are now available on these devices and students can access all their books in one small device.