History of Biotechnology

Timeline created by 14riinman
  • Before DNA

    Before DNA
    Robert Hooke coined the term "cells" and Leeuwenhoek observed the first microorganisms
  • Outcome of crosses

    Outcome of crosses
    Gregor Mendel and Austrian monk working with pea plants to try to prefict the outcome of crosses with certain traits.
  • The beliefe of DNA

    The beliefe of DNA
    Johann Miescher found nucleic acin in white blood cells, this led to the beliefe DNA might be in the inheritable material of an organism.
  • Studying Fruit Flies

    Studying Fruit Flies
    Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes were on chromosomes
  • Mice testing

    Mice testing
    Fred Griffith proved genetic material could be moved from one strain of bacteria to another
  • Isolating penicillin from fungus

    Isolating penicillin from fungus
    Sir Alexander Fleming isolated penicillin from a fungus. Many of his ideas are used to develop biotech drugs today
  • DNA strands

    DNA strands
    Chargaff showed the number of units of adenine equaled thumine and the number of units of cytosine equaled guanine.
  • Transferred Material

    Transferred Material
    Proposed the "One gene produces one enzyme", in 1944 scientists established the is was hereditary material that was transferred
  • Famous Bleder Experiment

    Famous Bleder Experiment
    Hershey and Chase proved ciruses replicated using DNA and confirmed the role of DNA as the hereditary material
  • Double Helix

    Double Helix
    Established through X-ray crytallography that DNA was a double helix
  • Discovery of DNA structure

    Discovery of DNA structure
    Watson and Crick discovered the stucture of DNA
  • Plasmid DNA

    Plasmid DNA
    Hayes discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria
  • RNA

    Walter Gilbert discovered the mechanism of gene expression through his study of messenger RNAS
  • Bacterial Restriction

    Bacterial Restriction
    Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA
  • Condons Discovered

    Condons Discovered
    Khorana and Nirenberg discovered the 64 condons that code for the 20 amino acids making up protein
  • Escherichia coli

    Escherichia coli
    Madel and Higa were responsible for the first transforming of the bacterium 'Escherichia coli'
  • Cloning

    Cloning experiments were conducted by Boyer and Cohen
  • Genetech

    Genetech, the world's first genetic engineering company, was founded
  • Recombinant DNA

    Recombinant DNA
    140 scientists met to draw up guidelines for work with recombinant DNA in microorganisms.
  • Sequence DNA

    Sequence DNA
    Found a way to sequence DNA given an unknown piece of DNA they were able to read the correct order of bases.
  • Synthetic Insulin

    Synthetic Insulin
    Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E. coli
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
    Bostein found that one could be identified by the pattern made of one's DNA through a digest by different enzymes.
  • Louise Joy Brown

    Louise Joy Brown
    The first child born resulting from in vitro fertilization
  • transgenic animals

    transgenic animals
    Ohio University scientists made the first transgenic animals
  • Huge start up for biotech companies

    Huge start up for biotech companies
    The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that genetically altered life forms can be patented.
  • Human Insulin Gene

    Human Insulin Gene
    Eli Lilly Company placed a human insulin gene inside bacteria
  • Agrobacterium

    transformed plants with 'Agrobacterium'-mediated gene transfer
  • Criminal Cases

    Criminal Cases
    Jefferies applied RFLP in DNA profiling to the study of criminal cases
  • polymerase chain reaction

    polymerase chain reaction
    Kary Mullis invented polymerase chain reaction to amplify DNA in the laboratory
  • Speeding up labor-intense process

    Speeding up labor-intense process
    AN automated fluoresence sequencer was invented.
  • Gene gun

    Gene gun
    Genes were moved into an organism through that use of a gene gun
  • Safety guidelines

    Safety guidelines
    NIH revised safety guidelines for recombinant DNA to include plants grown in greenhouses and animals raised in barns.
  • Fire and Mello

    Fire and Mello
    Discovered RNA interference, silencing of genes. om the worm, C. elegans
  • Kohler, Milstein and Jerne

    Kohler, Milstein and Jerne
    Used monoclonal antibody technology
  • Washington University

    Washington University
    Invented "yeast artificial chromosomes" or YACs, which are expression vectors for large proteins
  • Cloning

    Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of a ewe at the Roslin Institute in Scotland.
  • Microarrary technology

    Microarrary technology
    DNA microarrary technology, looking at the expression of all the genes of an organism at one time on a microscope slide or silicon chip, was developed.
  • Automated DNA Sequencer

    Automated DNA Sequencer
    Dabiri and Garner invented an automated DNA sequencer that had a capability of sequencing 76,800 base pairs per hour.
  • Roboswitch

    Breaker coined the term roboswitch for part of an mRNA molecule that can regulate its own activity and therefore gen expression
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    The completion of the Human Genome Project. Project provided the ability to find genes that gave rise to the sequencing of other genomes.