HIS 111: Digital Assignment by Danielle Early

By dme2291
  • 1500 BCE

    Introduction: Mesoamerican Civilizations

    Introduction: Mesoamerican Civilizations
    This timeline outlines the important events of the three most famous Mesoamerican civilizations--the Olmec, Aztec, and the Inca. Their accomplishments, origins, and ultimate demise are highlighted throughout this timeline, as well as any significant recent discoveries. Due to the limits created by Timetoast, each significant event that occurred after 100 AD uses July 2 as a place holder on the date. As with many ancient historical events, an exact day is unknown.
    image: http://bit.ly/1tvyopd
  • 1200 BCE

    The Olmec: San Lorenzo

    The first important Mesoamerican center was inhabited by the Olmecs of San Lorenzo from 1200 BCE to 900 BCE. This civilization was located on the Gulf of Mexico, which was a prime location due to the rich soil and favorable agricultural conditions, similar to those inhabited by other successful civilizations around the world. This urban center was densely populated by approximately 10,000 small farmers, priests, and laborers. San Lorenzo is thought to have been an urban, ceremonial center.
  • 900 BCE

    The Olmec: La Venta

    In 900 BCE a mysterious event occurred that destroyed San Lorenzo. Historians are unable to say what this event was; however, there is much speculation about it. 50 miles to the northeast of San Lorenzo, the Olmec civilization began to flourish at La Venta. This city was located where a rain forest previously stood.
  • 600 BCE

    The Olmec: Tres Zapotes

    The Olmec: Tres Zapotes
    In 600 BCE, the Olmec civilization at La Venta suffered from a mysterious event similar to that of San Lorenzo that destroyed the city. However, 70 miles to the northwest, the Olmec Civilization continued at Tres Zapotes from about 500 BCE to 1 BCE. Tres Zapotes was "eclipsed by new ceremonial centers" according to Peter von Sivers, et. al.
    Image: p. 127 in Patterns of World History Brief Edition by Peter von Sivers et. al.
  • 1 BCE

    The Olmec: The Lasting Effects

    Despite the ultimate demise of the civilization, the Olmec left a lasting impression. They're credited with the expiration of cacao beans, pottery, textiles, and jewelry. The Olmec are known to have set up outposts, through which, their artistic influence reached many other civilizations in Guatemala, Costa Rica, and the southern Valley of Mexico.
  • Jul 2, 1427

    The Aztec: Rise to Impirial Dominance

    The Aztec people descended from the mountainous regions of Northwest Mexico in search of a better life, much like many immigrants do. They began to conquer the Valley of Mexico in an area that is better known as Mexico City. Throughout the fifteenth century, they conquered an area that formed the empire spanning from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico and from northern Mexico to the Isthmus of Panama.
  • Jul 2, 1428

    The Aztec: Rise of an Empire

    Following a successful rebellion in 1428, the Aztec city-states of Tenochtitlán and two other vassal states banded together in an alliance. This alliance allowed the Aztect leader Itzcóatl to emerge as the leader of the empire. The empire was expanded on the islands of Tenochtitlán and Tlatelolco. By the mid fifteenth century, the Aztecs had conquered 55 city-states outside of the Valley of Mexico. Politically, the empire was divided into provinces where governors replaced rulers.
  • Jul 2, 1438

    The Inca: Creation of an Empire in the Andes

    Following the disintegration of 2 previous civilizations, turmoil ensuedl in the Andes Mountain region. Religion remained dominant in the wake of the disintegration, but this caused competition between pilgrimage centers. The competition resulted in an increased military presence in the region between 1100-1400. Eventually, the Incan elite emerged in Cuzco, a city-state located in Peru. They had established an empire called Tawantinsuyu. The creation can be traced back to a myth as well.
  • Jul 2, 1438

    The Inca: Expansion and Administration

    The Inca: Expansion and Administration
    The Inca employed a system of reciprocity that was used at various points throughout history. Through this system, you were obligated to help others due to a blood obligation or based on classes. The first conquests were near Lake Titicaca. These lands were agriculturally rich and were favorable to the empire. They also conquered land in modern day Ecuador, Chile, and western Argentina. The empire was divided into 4 regions and 80 provinces ruled by subgovernors.
    image: http://bit.ly/1Yzdvp0
  • Nov 2, 1519

    The Aztec: Hernan Cortés

    The Aztec: Hernan Cortés
    Hernan Cortés reached Tenochtitlán on November 2, 1519. Upon his arrival, Emperor Moctezuma II was unable to figure out how to approach the situation. Moctezuma invited the Spanish conquistadors to his palace, there were over 600 Spaniards. Once inside, Cortés placed the Emperor on house arrest and began the massacre of the Aztec people.
    image: http://bit.ly/1UWyqPX
  • Jul 2, 1525

    The Inca: Notable Innovations

    The Inca are credited with numerous innovations. Some notable innovations were the way by which subjects owed the empire service through taxes, farming, herding, manufacturing, and military service. Their most notable innovation was the mit'a. This was a way to rotate service obligations among subjects, similar to the draft system used in the United States today. Taxes were delivered to storehouses that were constructed throughout the empire through the delivery of a portion of the harvest.
  • Jul 2, 1525

    The Aztec: The Final Execution

    The Aztec: The Final Execution
    Shortly after the looting of Tenochtitlán, the final emperor, Cuauhtémoc, was executed in captivity in 1925. This execution marked the ultimate end of the empire.
    image: http://bit.ly/1EKcu3C
  • Jul 2, 1529

    The Inca: The Downhill Slide

    In the 16th century, it became virtually impossible to expand the empire any further due to its already great size. There was a lot of tension between the rulers and their families which put the Incas on the verge of dynastic warfare. However, the Spaniards arrived between 1529 and 1532. The Spanish conquistadors conquered the Incan empire and by 1533, it had ended.
  • Nov 16, 1532

    The Inca: The Beginning of the Demise

    The Inca: The Beginning of the Demise
    By the late 1520s, smallpox had plagued the Incan empire. The emperor and his heirs were all killed. A man by the name of Atahualpa became the heir to the throne. Francisco Pizzaro and his conquistadors ambushed the town square with Atahualpa in the center. Atahualpa sought to appease his captors; he did so with a room full of gold and silver. The Inca gave immense amounts of precious metals to the Spaniards for ransom.
    image: http://bit.ly/1UJ8WD6
  • Jul 26, 1533

    The Inca: Execution

    On July 26, 1533, Atahualpa was executed by the Spaniards as a result of the Spaniards displeasure with the ransom.
  • Jul 2, 1535

    The Inca: The End of an Empire

    3 months after Atahualpa's execution, the Spaniards took the city of Cuzco. They massacred large amounts of Inca people. By 1535, Pizarro founded a new capital, which he named Lima. The Spaniards began to employ guerrilla warfare as they were able to kill more people, more effectively.
  • Jul 2, 1572

    The Inca: A Continuation

    With the relocation of the capital to Lima, the Spaniards were able to rebuild the empire and keep it alive and flourishing until 1572. It was only in 1572 that the Spanish gained complete control of the Inca Empire.
  • The Aztec: Looting of the City

    After 10 months of preparations, the Spaniards returned to Tenochtitlán after having retreated previously. Cortés began bombing ships and bombarded the city. 3 months of this left the city in ruins, food and water scarce, and began the decimation of the Aztec population due to the introduction of smallpox. On August 21, 1521, the Spaniards entered the city, and looted the gold treasury.
  • The Olmec: Cascajal Block

    The Olmec: Cascajal Block
    In 2006, archaeologists and scientists found a large stone with what is believed to be Olmec writing on it at the excavation site at Caral-Supé. It's dated between 1100-900 BCE and is believed to be the oldest writing in the Americas. This form of writing is unlike any other form of writing found in the Americas, in that it's similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics. However, this fascinating form of writing died with the demise of the civilization.