Haitan revolution

  • Oct 12, 1492

    columbus reaches Saint-Domingue

    columbus reaches Saint-Domingue
    believe he is in Asia as he was interested in gold, which is something the Caribbeans lacked
    -introduced a new voyage that pathed the way to the trans-atlantic slave trade
  • Period: 1501 to

    The Atlantic slave trade

    all time of the slave trade was in the 18th century (1700-1800)
    -major cause to the Haitian revolution was the brutal and inhumane treatment
  • spanish gave up hispaniola to france

    spanish gave up hispaniola to france
    saint domingue, and the two countries that make up the island (saint/santo-domingue) were named after France NOT Spain
  • europe enslaved Africans for cheap labor

    europe enslaved Africans for cheap labor
    -Portugal was first to trade slaves
    -originally used natives from the west, but many died due to disease
    slaves worked on: sugar, tobacco, coffee, rice, cacao, cotton, and indigo farms/plantations
    -life for slaves was brutal and inhumane
  • Period: to

    Enlightenment period

    Introduced new ideas surrounding liberty, freedom, and challenging tradition, which gave lots of inspiration to the Taino people
  • Period: to

    American Revolution

    -American revolution inspired the french revolution which directly gave rise to the Haitian revolution, as it gave the people inspiration
    -Many free men of color from Saint-Domingue fought in Georgia (american rev.) with other American rebels, where they returned with military expertise and experience
  • Period: to

    French Revolution

    A revolt against an unjust gov't also gave the people of Saint-Domingue inspiration, especially because France colonized Haiti
    -they also knew the french gov. was not stable/weak, making it easier to take advantage of their power and combat them
  • the declaration of the rights of men

    the declaration of the rights of men
    the ideals (liberty, equality, and fraternity) gave the people hope
  • free people of color sign petition

    free people of color sign petition
    -were the first to ask for equality
    -was guaranteed to mixed race persons who were born from 2 free parents.
    -gave hope and inspiration to the rest of saint-domingue
    -while they were more privileged then the enslaves, still did not have as much equality
    purpose: citizenship rights
  • Dutty boukman organizes revolts

    Dutty boukman organizes revolts
    Boukman help secrete meetings and voodoo ceremonies where he planned on the revolt
  • The First Revolt

    The First Revolt
    1,000 slaves decided to attacked(poisoning, stabbing, and killing) their masters. The only way the slaves would be free is if they delivered the same violent energy that the white colonists exerted on them
  • revolt lasts 3 days

    revolt lasts 3 days
    about 20,00 more newly liberated slaves joined this army. About 140 sugar plantations & 1,000 coffee farms were burned. And the white colonists and mixed race people fled to the capital city for protection.
  • white colonists rebel

    white colonists rebel
    the whites killed hundreds of blacks attempting to stop the revolution
  • France's response

    France's response
    The new french government sent more than 10,000 military enforcement to help the colonists re-establish white ruling
  • Toussaint's settlement offer

    Toussaint's settlement offer
    this offer was in place for an exchange for the freedom of 200 slave leaders and better working conditions on the plantations, hoping to protect the owners and maintain order.
    --unusual to see him helping the colonists more than the slaves
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    Reign of terror is at its peak in FRANCE, where King Louis XVI was executed
  • Toussaint's letter

    Toussaint's letter
    Toussaint writes a letter to the disenfranchised (black slaves), on how he is going to deliver them liberty and equality as soon as possible
  • Spanish and British troops invade saint-domingue

    Spanish and British troops invade saint-domingue
    this does not last for too long
  • Toussaint makes a deal with Spain

    Toussaint makes a deal with Spain
    Toussaint made a deal with the Spanish, where he would help Spain get rid of the British and Spain would provide guns/ammunition to the slave army
  • National convention's decision

    National convention's decision
    not only was slavery abolished in Saint-domingue, but it extends to all french territories
  • Toussaint re-aligns with France

    Toussaint re-aligns with France
    Toussaint wanted to improve economy because their chances of survival depended on it-- he forced the blacks to return to laborious work on the plantation (but they were paid this time- no slavery)
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture is commander of Saint-Domingue

    Toussaint L'Ouverture is commander of Saint-Domingue
  • napoleon creates a new constitution

    napoleon creates a new constitution
    It states that Saint-Domingue will not be represented in the French legislative and therefore not be governed by laws of French citizens.
    -slaves fear he will re-instate slavery (which he does)
  • Toussaint creates constitution

    Toussaint creates constitution
  • revolt b/c of constitution

    revolt b/c of constitution
    the people are not happy with Toussaint's new constitution, specifically that he declared himself dictator for life
  • peace treaty

    peace treaty
    France and Britain sign of a peace treaty
    -this allows Napoleon to have full control and attention to himself on Haiti, which weaken Toussaint's position
  • France Betrays Saint-Domingue

    France Betrays Saint-Domingue
    Napoleon sent out the largest french expedition to conquer saint-domingue
  • France Wins

    France Wins
    -Toussaint surrenders himself, He is later arrested by general charles-victor-Emmanuel Leclarc for charges of conspiracy, but believes it was due to his skin color.
    -slavery is re-established once napoleon is in control
  • chaos in Saint-Domingue

    chaos in Saint-Domingue
    The people of saint-domingue grew with fear as many were executed publicly and treated poorly, so Dessaline stepped in. He replaces Toussaint's position as a leader
  • scorched earth campaign

    scorched earth campaign
    this campaign burned the towns in order to leave the french with very little, so they would have no choice but to depart-- tactic was successful
  • toussaint dies

    he dies in his prison, located in the cold mountains of France
  • Haitian revolution officially ENDS!!

    Haitian revolution officially ENDS!!
    -No one invaded or traded with Haiti again. most of Haiti lost and poverty is due to the scorched earth policy.
    -Dessaline later crowns himself emperor, declares independence of Saint-Domingue and the creation of the sovereign nation of Haiti