Exploring our Oceans, Exploiting our Oceans

  • Jan 1, 1400

    Paleolithic Period (c 2,000,000 – c 8,000 B.C.)

    Paleolithic Period (c 2,000,000 – c 8,000 B.C.)
    During the Paleolithic period or "Old Stone Age," humans reveloped the barbed spear (harpoon) and the gorge (double pointed stick inserted into bait and attatched to string). We call is a fishing hook now-a-days. Technology was very rock-oriented. (c 2,000,000 – c 8,000 B.C.)
  • Feb 24, 1430

    Neolithic Period (c 5,500 – c 2,500 B.C.)

    Neolithic Period (c 5,500 – c 2,500 B.C.)
    At the beginning of this period, bone fish hooks were developed. Later on the net was developed. (c 5,500 – c 2,500 B.C.)
  • Feb 25, 1431

    Copper fish hooks (5000 B.C.)

    Copper fish hooks (5000 B.C.)
    By 5000 B.C. copper fish hooke were in use.
  • Feb 25, 1435

    First recorded voyage (3200 B.C.)

    First recorded voyage (3200 B.C.)
    The first recorded voyage went from Egypt to the southern edge of the Arabian Peninsula and Red Sea. (~3200 B.C.)
  • Feb 28, 1450

    Pharaoh Ti's temple (~5000 years ago)

    Pharaoh Ti's temple (~5000 years ago)
    On ancient walls of Pharaoh Ti's temple (~5000 years ago), a drawing of a poisonous puffer fush was found with a hieroglyphic description and warning was found on a wall. (Not the one depicted in the picture along with this event. That's just a cute puffer fish.)
  • Feb 28, 1451

    Persian Gulf (~1200 B.C.)

    Persian Gulf (~1200 B.C.)
    ~1200 B.C. or earlier, dried fish were traded in the Persian Gulf.
  • Feb 25, 1454

    Alexander the Great (1500 B.C.)

    Alexander the Great (1500 B.C.)
    In 1500 B.C., Islam explored for trade and recourses and Alexander the Great began leading his troops to sea, looking to take over land.
    He expected to find large monsters, but instead found the tides. His voyage was one of the first recorded and it went from the Mediterranean to England. That was BIG! (1500 B.C.)
  • Jan 24, 1457

    Eratosthenes (264-194 B.C.)

    Eratosthenes (264-194 B.C.)
    Eratosthenes was one of the first to map the world. He also was the first person to measure the circumference of the world (40,250 was his measurement, now we know it's 40,067). (264 B.C.-194 B.C.)
  • May 1, 1471

    Pliny the Elder (~40 A.D.)

    Pliny the Elder (~40 A.D.)
    Pliny the Elder was the first person to connect tides to the pattern of the moon. (~40 A.D.)
  • Feb 26, 1478

    Leif Erikson (1002 A.D>)

    Leif Erikson (1002 A.D>)
    Leif Erikson was the first person to sail from Greenland to North America. He did this about 500 years before Colombus.
    Leif Erikson was a viking. (1002 A.D.)
  • Apr 2, 1490

    Chinese vessels (1200-1500 A.D.)

    Chinese vessels (1200-1500 A.D.)
    China began exploring to expand their nation. They did this after 1200-1500 A.D., in which they were building the most technologically advanced ships the world had ever seen.
  • Apr 1, 1507

    America is applied to the new world (April 1507)

    America is applied to the new world (April 1507)
    In a map by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller, he depicts America for the first time. Before this, Europe didn't know that America was a seperate continent.
  • Apr 25, 1513

    Vasco Nunez/Juan Ponce (1513)

    Vasco Nunez/Juan Ponce (1513)
    Vasco Nunes crossed the Isthmus and found the Pacific ocean from Europe.
    Juan Ponce discovered Florida and the Florida Current. (1513)
  • Feb 26, 1522

    Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1522)

    Ferdinand Magellan (1519-1522)
    Ferdinand Magellan lead the first circumnavigation of the world and established the length of degree of Latitude. He also measured the circumference of Earth.
  • Kepler/Galilei/Newton/Halley (1600s)

    Kepler/Galilei/Newton/Halley (1600s)
    Johannes Kepler discovered planetary motion and published his findings in 1609. Galilep Galilei determined the mass, weight and acceleration of earth. Sir Isaac Newton discovered how gravity explained the tides. Edmund Halley discovered the longitude and age of our oceans. He also determined the rate at which rivers carry salt to the sea and salt was the basis for the age of our oceans.
  • The 20th Century (1900s in a nutshell)

    The 20th Century (1900s in a nutshell)
    Post Civil War, private institutions took over oceanography research and government became interested in ocean research.
    During the mid 20th century, oceanography budget inscresed after WWII because nations became interested in how to harness all the oceans had to offer.
    The IGY program was founded and consisted of 67 nations that worked together to explore/map the sea floor,
    Satellites became the main tool of exploration.
    The concern for the envinronment grew. (1970s)
  • ICES created (1902)

    ICES created (1902)
    ICES was created to coordinate and promote exploration of our oceans. They promoted marine research on oceanography, marine environment, ecosystem and livicoordinates and promotes marine research on oceanography, the marine environment, the marine ecosystem, and on living marine resources. (1902)
  • Marine Bio Association (1903)

    Marine Bio Association (1903)
    The MBA was founded in 1903. Their mission statement is, "To seek, teach, and communicate scientific understanding of the oceans, atmosphere, and Earth for the benefit of society and the environment."
  • Fridjof Nansen (1910)

    Fridjof Nansen (1910)
    Nansen was interested in ice drift direction in the Arctic. He also created deep-sea water sampling. (1910)
  • The Meteor (1925-1927)

    The Meteor (1925-1927)
    Germany sent the Meteor to do an oceanographic expedition to do depth soundings, water temperature studies, water samples, studies of marine life and atmospheric observations. The exploration went tp the South Atlantic ocean from the equatorial region to Antarctica.
  • Satellite data (1965)

    Satellite data (1965)
    Satellite data was used to ontain more precise information about our oceans.
  • Deep-sea drilling (1968)

    Deep-sea drilling (1968)
    Deep-sea drilling began in 1968 to obtain natural recources. The image attatched to this is the Glomar Challenger. Its duty was to do deep-sea research and scientific drilling. In August 1968 it was part of the Deep Sea Drilling Program.

    TOPEX (Poseidon) was a satellite sent to space which is used to explore the circulation of our oceans. It was a France and US joint mission. The TOPEX's duty is to talk to buoys that are on our oceans to give us information.
    Its goals are: 1) To make through reviews of oceans polices and programs and to ensure the coordination of advancements lead to beneficial results.
    2) Raise public awareness of the importance of our oceans and to show how our daily lives are impacted/impact them.
  • WOCE (2000s)

    WOCE (2000s)
    WOCE studies the oceans of our world by using computer models and chemical tracers. It makes models of the oceans and atmosphere.
  • NOAA (2001)

    NOAA (2001)
    NOAA created tbe office of Ocean Exploration. It was created to encourage new exploration of missions into oceans.