Evolution of the Training Profession

  • Period: to

    Evolution of the Training Profession WWII to Present

    According to Estep (2008, p.15) training methods
    had to be developed to train workers faster and more thoroughly than before. Charles R. Allen’s
    “show-tell-do-check” training method popularized during WWI became systemic until WWII.
  • 1950's

    The 1950s marked a shift in training theories and methods within organizations. In response to evidence that, methods used successfully during wartime were “beginning to prove demotivating to employees (Esetp, 2008, p. 16) the introduction of “human relations training”
    (Esetp, 2008, p. 16) was seen. Some organization even trained managers and supervisors in
  • 1950's

    Behaviorism & job analysis formed basis of individualized instruction
    Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives created & led to knowledge, skills, & attitudes (KSAs) being included in learning objectives
    (Estep, 2008)
  • 1960's

    In the 1960s the training profession further broadened its focus with the adoption of Organizational Development (OD). Organizational Development is a “values-based approach to systems change in organizations and communities” (Esetp, 2008, p. 21).
  • 1960's

    Psychology of influence, motivation, attitude change & diversity became popular training topics
    Theories of cognitive development (Jean Piaget) & model for instructional objectives (Robert F. Mager) were established
    (Estep, 2008)
  • 1970's

    In the early 70s Malcolm Knowles’s book The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species, described the differences in the way adults learn as opposed to the way that children learn which spawned the
    development of the constructive learning theory that sought to “create learning experiences that enable learners to discover and construct learning for themselves” (Esetp, 2008, p. 24).
  • 1970's

    Social movements influenced training, leading to training focus on sensitivity, discrimination, self-awareness & understanding group dynamics
    Cognitivism (Robert M. Gagné) & constructivism (Jean Piaget) learning theories emerged
    (Estep, 2008)
  • 1980's

    The 1980s was a period of slowed productivity in conjunction with a growth of global competition. Organization responded by downsizing and “many managers found themselves without jobs” (Esetp, 2008, p. 24). Training budgets became an increasing concern with return
    on investment of training dollars becoming a hot topic. In addition, this time saw “women entering the field of training and development at an unprecedented rate” (Esetp, 2008, p. 25).
  • 1980's

    In response to economic slowdown, cost-benefit analysis & return on investment (ROI) became popular training topics
    Other training topics included: assertiveness, behavior modeling, teamwork, empowerment, diversity, feedback, & trainers’ competencies
  • 1990's

    A flood of new technology began in the 1990s and has continually expand providing the training professional with unparalleled opportunities and challenges. With the advent of each introduction of new technology come new concerns to be considered and new opportunities to expand the profession.
  • 1990's

    Technology exploded – e-learning, computer-based training & online learning became commonplace
    Hot training topics included: performance support, learning organizations, reengineering, customer focus, global organizations, & creating work-life balance
    Training gained legitimacy in public sector & the U.S. Office of Work-Based Learning was established
  • 2000's

    "In learning theory, behaviorism continues to have a strong influence on learning design, but cognitive and constructivist learning theories also have their effects through the use of Gagné 's nine events of learning and discovery learning" (Estep, T. (2008). references:
    Estep, T. (2008). Chapter 1: The evolution of the training profession. ASTD Handbook for Workplace Learning Professionals, n/a. https://www.google.com/search?q=free+pictures+free+pictures+of+learning+theory&imgrc
  • 2000

    Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model evolved, but still influenced by Bloom’s taxonomy & Mager’s model for learning objectives
    Technology developments increased use of e-learning, mobile learning, online learning, collaborative learning & social learning
  • Various Types of Trainings

    Various Types of Trainings
  • Vex Score Training

    Vex Score Training
    This 2 day training focused on the 2021-2022 VEX IQ competition, PitchingIn. Teacher's built this year's competition robots, Fling, review the game to develop strategies, and practive coding skills.
  • Conclusion

    The training profession has evolved dramatically since WWII - both in training focus & types of training provided. Effective trainers must be continuous learners to remain relevant within the
    profession. Technology continues to drive organizational training delivery & effectiveness. Training professionals need to be able to employ multiple training theories and models in order to achieve cost conscious, efficient, and value focused training.
  • References

    Caffarella, R. S., & Daffron, S. R. (2013). Planning programs for adult learners: A practical guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Estep, T. (2008). Section I: Learning in the workplace - chapter 1: The evolution of the training
    profession. Alexandria: American Society for Training and Development. Retrieved from