Evolution of Special Education Services

  • Council for Exceptional Children

    Council for Exceptional Children
    The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) was established to organize teachers to help children with exceptionalities. CEC Foundation
  • Public Law 88-164

    Public Law 88-164
    President John F. Kennedy initiated this legislation which authorized funds for training professionals to work with exceptional children. It also called for the research of better practices.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    Enacted as part of President Lyndon B Johnson's "War on Poverty", the ESEA promotes equal access to education for all children.
  • Public Law 93-112

    This legislation provides equal access to all provided services for those with physical and mental handicaps. This legislation also states that it is illegal to deny anyone a job because they are disabled.
  • Public Law 94-142

    Public Law 94-142
    The Federal Government provides resources and supportr for those with special needs.
  • Public Law 99-457 (IDEA)

    Public Law 99-457 (IDEA)
    Originally called the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) appropriates funds to develop programs for exceptional children and their families from birth.
  • Americans with Disabilities Act

    PL 101-336 "extends civil rights to persons with disabilities."
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    Proposed by President Bush January 5, 2001, the No Child Left Behind Act was initiated to hold schools accountable for the success of all children.
  • Individuals with Disablities Education Act 2004

    The IDEA 2004 reauthorizes basic concepts made in 1986, but also requires each exception child to have an Individualized Education plan (IEP) to track individual progress.
  • FAPE

    FAPE is defined in section 504 as "The provision of regular or special education and related aids and services that are designed to meet individual needs of handicapped persons...are met and based on adherence to procedural safeguards outlined in the law.”
  • Sources

    "Educating Exceptional Children" ( the course book)
    Lecture notes and powerpoints