Evolution of Educational Technology

  • 40 BCE

    Cave Drawings- Paintings on Cave Wall

    Cave Drawings- Paintings on Cave Wall
    Hunting was so important for early humans and they started to draw something about hunting on caves’ wall in order to teach how can the young humans or the other humans hunt. By demonstrating some figure, they taught other humans to hunt.
  • 30 BCE

    Oral Communication

    Oral Communication
    In ancient times, people used oral communication for adapt to environment the young ones live in. At the same time they used this communication style for facilitate to some hard situation thanks to each other’s experience. Bates (2015) states that “they had to be memorized by listening, not by reading, and transmitted by recitation, not by writing”(p.214). In this time, some stories, histories and news were told with oral communication.
  • 27 BCE

    Written Communication

    Written Communication
    In early times, people thought that important informations needed to be permanent. Humans used stone clay, tree bark, metal sheets, clay tablets, wax tablet and animals’ skin for writing. Because in this time the was no paper and they used this tool and made the writing permanently.
  • 25 BCE

    Sumerian Abacus

    Sumerian Abacus
    Sumerian abacus is used for calculation in education field. According to Woods “Calculations in early Mesopotamia were carried out not with cuneiform numerals, but -following a seemingly universal practice- with the use of an abacus of some kind” (p.416).
  • Overhead Projectors

    Overhead Projectors
    Overhead projectors were used by lighting and it provides large image (not just image also film, slide and effective presentation) for learners in education field. There are so many advantages for learning with overhead projectors because visualization is so important. It was used for effective teaching by lecturers.
  • Mimeograph Machine

    Mimeograph Machine
    Mimeograph machine was used for copying hand-writing. The abbreviation of this tool was mimeo and rarely humans said for this machine “stencil duplicators”. Its cost was low in ancient time so people used this machine for teaching and spreading crucial information.
  • Offset Printers

    Offset Printers
    Offset printers are also the other machine which is used for copying- printing technique that contain inked images. It has also thename of offset lithography or litho-offset. People used this machine for copying more inked images or hand-writing. This was an oil-based printing.
  • Blackboards

    Blackboards are used for teaching again. It was very useful in terms of its size because it covered an entire wall of the classroom. Because it stated central location for learners, it provided a lot of convenience in education field. Craig (1988) indicates that blackboards gave an opportunity for problem-solving proccess.
  • Radio

    Radio is used for communication in early time. It also provides some conveniences in fields of sending a message. In early times, people could follow the news thanks to the radios. At the same time, because radios facilities in terms of auditory area, it used again for education. Many broadcasts were made for education in radio broadcasts.
  • Spirit Duplicator

    Spirit Duplicator
    It is a printing method like mimeograph machine. Alcohols, which are the main component of solvents took as "inks" in these machines, are referred to as "spirit duplicators.". It is founded by Wilhelm Ritzerfeld in 20th century.
  • Television

    Visuality was at the forefront in slides, and hearing was in the foreground in cassette and radio, but in the television age, both visual and auditory sense were at the forefront at the same time. Television is a very effective tool in the field of distance education because it’s transmitting wide audience mass.
  • Slide Projectors

    Slide Projectors
    Slide projectors is a more advanced version of overhead projectors. It shows photographic demonstration (slides) and it also used for education in 1973.
  • Computer

    Since the computer has a high capacity of storing information, it is a very useful tool for students to obtain information easily. And in addition, it facilitates the interaction of students with each other. The invention of the computer has greatly contributed to education, as students learn by having fun with technologies such as computers.
  • Video cassette

    Video cassette
    Magnetic tape used to store video and supplementary audio is known as a video cassette. It can store information, which can be in the form of analog data or a digital signal. It records some television programs broadcast. It has been used in the field of education with its facilities in the auditory field.
  • Whiteboards

    With whiteboards, students became more interactive both with their teachers and with their friends. With the advancement of technology, white smart boards have been very entertaining and instructive. Students have become more creative thanks to these boards. Whiteboards are also effective device for teaching and learning.
  • Smartphones – tablets

    Smartphones – tablets
    Phones and tablets are another device that facilitates education both in terms of portability and easy note taking for students. Students have the opportunity to access information on tablets and phones as well as computers. Through phones and tablets, students can obtain and read many useful resources, and at the same time, they can find many examples about their lessons and make the subject they cannot understand understandable. Collaboration is also provided in interaction with friends.
  • Robots

    We can also talk about the use of robots for education. Robots alleviate knowledge learning difficulties for students. Robots increase the productivity of students and help them to understand the lesson more easily. It is quite difficult to attract students' attention, but this situation has become easier with robots and many students' efficiency in the lesson has increased.
  • References

    Craig, I. D. (1988). Artificial Intelligence Review. 2(2), 103-118.
    Woods, C. (2017). The abacus in Mesopotamia: considerations from a comparative perspective. The First Ninety Years, 416-478.