Ethical Philosopher and their Respective Ethical Philosophies

  • 470 BCE

    SOCRATES - (469-399BC)

    SOCRATES - (469-399BC)
    Socrates believed that, for the greater well-being of humanity, theory could yield practical results.Instead of philosophical philosophy, he tried to create an ethical framework based on human reason.The ultimate aim of Socrates' philosophical method is always ethical.Socrates believed that if one knows what the good is, one will always do what is good. Thus if one truly understands the meaning of courage, self-control, or justice, one will act in a courageous, self-controlled and just manner.
  • 428 BCE

    PLATO - (428-348 BC)

    PLATO - (428-348 BC)
    Plato was an Athenian philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. Plato maintains a virtue-based eudaemonistic conception of ethics. That is to say, happiness or well-being (eudaimonia) is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues (aretê: ‘excellence’) are the requisite skills and dispositions needed to attain it. He believed that wisdom is the basic virtue and with it, one can unity all virtues into a whole
  • 384 BCE

    ARISTOTLE - (384-322 BC)

    ARISTOTLE - (384-322 BC)
    Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences. Its methodology must match its subject matter—good action—and must respect the fact that in this field many generalizations hold only for the most part. We study ethics in order to improve our lives, and therefore its principal concern is the nature of human well-being.
  • 469

    SOCRATES - (469-399BC)

    SOCRATES - (469-399BC)
    Socrates believed that, for the greater well-being of humanity, theory could yield practical results. Instead of philosophical philosophy, he tried to create an ethical framework based on human reason. The ultimate aim of Socrates' philosophical method is always ethical. Socrates believed that if one knows what the good is, one will always do what is good.Thus if one truly understands the meaning of courage, self-control, or justice, one will act in a courageous, self-controlled and just manner.
  • 551

    CONFUCIUS - (551-479 BC)

    CONFUCIUS - (551-479 BC)
    Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period. The philosophy of Confucius, also known as Confucianism, emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity.The worldly concern of Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, and teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor, especially self-cultivation and self-creation.
  • 1225

    SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS - (1225 - 1274)

    SAINT THOMAS AQUINAS - (1225 - 1274)
    Thomas Aquinas was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church. Aquinas believes that we should always follow our conscience, even when it is wrong or causes great harm. Since we have no way of knowing whether our consciences are wrong, they are the best guide we have as to what is the moral thing to do.
  • THOMAS HOBBES - (1588-1678)

    THOMAS HOBBES - (1588-1678)
    Thomas Hobbes was the foremost British philosopher of the 17th century.Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan, in which he expounds an influential formulation of social contract theory. Hobbes proposed a view of morality that was completely divorced from religion. There was a desire to appear separate and distinct from the Roman Catholic Church .
  • IMMANUEL KANT - (1724-1804)

    IMMANUEL KANT - (1724-1804)
    Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers. Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics have made him one of the most influential figures. Kant's ethics are organized around the notion of a “categorical imperative,” which is a universal ethical principle stating that one should always respect the humanity in others, and that one should only act in accordance with rules that hold everyone.
  • JEREMY BENTHAM - (1748- 1832)

    JEREMY BENTHAM - (1748- 1832)
    Jeremy Bentham was a philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.Bentham defined as the "fundamental axiom" of his philosophy the principle that "it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong.Utilitarianism, according to which an action is right if it tends to promote happiness or pleasure and wrong if it tends to produce unhappiness, pain not just for the performer but also for everyone.
  • JOHN STUART MILL - (1806-1873)

    JOHN STUART MILL - (1806-1873)
    John Stuart Mill, usually cited as J. S. Mill, was an English philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. He was prominent as a publicist in the reforming age of the 19th century. The ethical theory of John Stuart Mill is most extensively articulated in his classical text Utilitarianism (1861). Its goal is to justify the utilitarian principle as the foundation of morals. This principle says actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote overall human happiness.