ETEC 510 Educational Technology Timeline

  • FCC puts aside 242 channels for educational purposes

    The FCC along with other groups of researchers and educators predict that through this upcoming ausio visual media tool, teachers and students will be able to use television as a strong instructional resource in education for years to come.
  • Period: to

    1950's

  • Ford Foundation

    The Ford Foundation whose goal has become one for social change and improvement, sponsored closed-circuit television systems to transmit instruction in all subjects and all levels in Maryland, a JC curriculum in Chicago, and Penn State’s Airborne Television Instruction (televised lessons from airplanes to schools).
  • Sputnik launched by the Soviets

    Spurred the US government to fund math and science education in public schools. However, it was later determined that the materials created were not effective. Also created a strong concern for the US to implement their own space program for different fears and other reasons.
  • Researchers at IBM developed the first Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) author language and designed one of the first CAI programs to be used in public schools .

    Researchers at IBM developed the first Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) author language and designed one of the first CAI programs to be used in public schools .
    With this idea, researchers have have proposed theoretical models of the connections between the student's environment and their ability to understand and retain information. CAI presented that it is possible to present information in new meaningful ways, engage different learning styles, record and assess student's choices and performance, and suggest feedback based on how the students scored.
  • The US military uses computer simulations in “war games” exercises

    The military along with other educational institutions realized that any technological advancement could help prepare not only students, but soldiers preparing for war. Information is a very powerful tool, and the more the military had, the more advantageous it was.
  • Dale and Finn - Postwar growth with audio/visual technology.

    After WWII, there was a shift in the way people were trained because the US and other countries were using movies and other audio visual technologies. So, there was much more desire for more, not only for our soldiers, but for people to be trained for jobs, students in schools, etc.
  • “B. F. Skinner demonstrates at the University of Pittsburgh a machine designed to teach arithmetic, using an instructional program.”

    Skinner thought the classroom was not the best condition/environment for learning, so he thought a teaching machine would produce the best/desired results for student learning.The machine could provide: behavioral objectives, small frames of instruction, self-pacing, active learner response to inserted questions, and immediate feedback regardless to correctness of the response.
  • Beginning of the Programmed Instruction Movement, a factor in the development of the systems approach

    With this approach came the Teask Analysis idea of Robert B. Miller. This idea helped to prioritze and organize the man maching relationship in using the resources available and obtaining and achieving the goals set forth.
  • “Taxonomy of Educational Objectives” (1956) aka Bloom’s Taxonomy

    Bloom described three learning domains: cognitive, affective, and psychmotor. Within the cognitive domain, there are various types of learning outcomes. Objectives are classified according to the type of learned behavior described. There is a hierarchical relationship among the various types of outcomes. This is also known as learning in action.
  • IBM publicly presents experiments in computer-based education in a conference at the University of Pennsylvania, sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

    With pressure from the Soviets launching Sputnik, the US government in response, decided to make a strong push towards using education not only in the schools, but the military and space program as well.
  • Edward Djikstra

    Helped develop the idea of structured programming so storing and adding information to a computer allowed others to build on what was already established. Especially in developing programming languages.
  • Period: to

    1960's

  • Industrial Robots

    Industrial Robots
    The first industrial robot was online in a General Motors automobile factory in New Jersey. It was called UNIMATE.
    Gave help to the process of assembly line production and later led to numerous other helpful applications, inclusing people with disabilities.
  • Doug Englebart invents the computer mouse, first called the X-Y Position Indicator.

    Douglas Engelbart changed the way computers worked, from specialized machinery that only a trained scientist could use, to a user-friendly tool that almost anyone can use. Still a tool we use today.
  • Bobrow's "Student" solves math word-problems.

    Bobrow created a program "STUDENT" to solve math word problems based on the language program he created to help the computer understand and solve the questions.
  • John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz of Dartmouth College develop the first BASIC programming language.

    At the time BASIC was easy to use and learn for both students and educators. While it continues to evolve, it led to the creation of other programming languages: C++, Java, etc.
  • Wang - PL1 comes out the same year.

    Wang introduces the LOCI (logarithmic calculating instrument), a desktop calculator at the bargain price of $6700, much less than the cost of a mainframe. Of course today, calculators are still widely used, but you can have one much smaller, portable, and cheaper.
  • Sabre database system.

    SABRE is a computer reservations system that helped revolutionize the reservations systems used initially by airlines to handle the volume of people wanting to book flights. The educational and professional training for a program like this eventually led to IBM helping organize a uniform system for all the providers to use.
  • IBM sells over 30,000 mainframe computers based on the 360 family which uses core memory.

    This preview of what we have today provides a look at how the idea of owning a computer no longer belonged to just the military, government, or high powered business. The personalizing of computers was beginning.
  • IBM builds the first floppy disk

    This ability to store data is absolutely a powerful tool and resource we still use today, only we are able to do it virtually as well.
  • Unix operating system, characterised by multitasking (also called time-sharing), virtual memory, multi-user design and security, designed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at AT&T Bell Laboratories, USA

    This advancement really helped people, companies, etc., use their data not only among their own hardware, but other hardware as well. Being able to connect computers with phones and other machines is something that greatly powered a new type of communication that we still use today.
  • Period: to

    1970's

  • 1970 4th generation computers manufactured, containing 15,000 circuits

  • 1971 Intel develops their first microprocessor

  • 1972 First email program is developed by Ray Tomlinson

    1972 First email program is developed by Ray Tomlinson
  • 1972 Arcade game Pong is created by Nolan Bushnell

    1972 Arcade game Pong is created by Nolan Bushnell
  • 1975 Engineers at Xerox PARC file for US Patent of “Ethernet Technology”

    Pre cursor to high speed internet.
  • 1976 Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak build the first Apple computer

  • 1977 Announcement of the Tandy TRS-80 personal computer

  • 1977 JVC (Japan Victor Company) introduces the VHS format

    VHS was a valuable tool used by educators in the classroom for our visual learners.
  • 1979 VisiCalc,a spreadsheet program, is programmed by Bob Frankston and Dan Bricklin.

    Proves crucial in the adoption of personal computers in the business world
  • 1979 The first public online information services, CompuServe and the Source, are founded.

  • Period: to

    1980's

  • 1980: IBM 3380 Disk System was introduced

    Ability to access large amounts of data.
  • 1981:“NASA - Launched First Space Shuttle.”

  • 1981Microsoft - MS-DOS Computer Operating System

    Increased Microsoft's ability to produce computers that led to the development of Windows.
  • 1982: Commodore - “introduces the Commodore 64

    1982: Commodore - “introduces the Commodore 64
    Gave people and households the chance to play interactive games via the keyboard and the use of floppy disks.
  • 1983: Compaq Computer Corp.

    First instance of clone software to heat up the competition between manufacturers.
  • Educational Software

    Computer instruction software is primarily confined to high school, with drill and practice being the predominant model. “According to Murdock, Apple II Computers found widespread acceptance in education in 1983, and Apple developed computer-based tutorials and learning games. In 1984, the Apple Works suite was introduced and featured word processing, spreadsheet, database, paint and drawing applications. This new software could be used by students in a variety of subjects, such as typing essay
  • 1984: Apple Computer launched the Macintosh

    The first successful mouse-driven computer with a graphic user interface.
  • 1984: Papert predicts that by 1990, 1 computer/student would be “common”

    Something that would not have been thought possible only a few years earlier.
  • 1985: C++ Programming Language emerged

    Programming taken to a whole new and exciting level.
  • Computers start being employed to automate instructional design elements

    Very powerful but mismanaged capability by companies and school's alike. The instructional design model doesn't take into account learner motivation and/or interest.
  • 1990 Tim Berner-Lee creates HTML

    1990 Tim Berner-Lee creates HTML
    The beginning of the World Wide Web.
  • 1990 Microsoft releases Windows 3.0

    Windows took off and became such a user friendly way regarding interface and navigation. Helped create the giant Microsoft has become.
  • 1990 Roger Schank - Constructivist simulations.

    Programming computers to learn as more input is given. A movement towards the artificial intelligence idea.
  • Period: to

    1990's

  • 1991 Multimedia PCs introduced in the classroom

    Created opportunity for students to access interactive models for learning and "computer time."
  • 1990 Use of multimedia in instruction (Instructional Design/Computers in Education)

    Powerful tool to help learners of all styles access the curriculum, key concepts, and proficiency levels.
  • 1992 – SCORE! SCORE Delivers Courseware Personalized to Teachers and Subjects

    Additional and supplemental curriculum provided for educators to use in the classroom. These packages lead to the creation of online learning community boards, like Blackboard and Desire 2 Learn.
  • 1993 Mosaic web browser is released

    Facilitated people's ability to search the web for information. A very user friendly organized approach.
  • 1994 Yahoo is founded and become the Internet’s most popular search engine.

    Yahoo began to create different and popular features users could use when navigating the web. Provided a source for businesses to advertise and became sort of the pre - cursor to Google.
  • 1994 Digital version of Encyclopedia Britannica available in CD-ROM.

    Tremendous electronic reference resource for students at the fingertips.
  • 1998 Creation of the National Educational Technology Standards (NETS)

    The basis for school districts recognizing technology as another skill students needed to become proficient with to help them prepare for life beyond school.
  • Period: to

    2000's

  • 2000 Using Blended Learning to Prepare Future Distance Learning: A Technology Perspective

    Teaching can be pre - recorded and accessed by students in an educational program when not being taught traditionally. The goal is to have them technologically trained and ready for their field and anything beyond that.
  • From Traditiona2000 Delivery to Distance Learning: Developing the Model

    Distance learning, while not for all students, is in demand due to many of the different challenges faced by students today. The distance learning model requires a great amount of resources, including time, but within this model also teaches the students the idea of time management, collaboration, and research.
  • 2001 Broadband Internet use begins to rise

    Service providers begin offering highspeed connections allowing consumers to access information quickly. Also, for schools, gives educators another tool for giving students the opportunity to learn via research.
  • 2002 Design Patterns for digital item types in Higher Education.

    Researchers were attempting to design both formative and summative tests along with interactive learning material in the form of assessments in the areas of life science, medical science, and engineering. The challenges indentified in higher education by teachers wanted assessments with digital items that test for understanding and hope to reduce the guesswork exhibited by many students based previous observation.
  • 2005 Adobe Connect

    Adobe produces conferencing software that allows students to interact virtually, synchronously, with educators using the internet. This promotes the idea of virtual learning to a new level.
  • 2005 iPhone is released.

    2005 iPhone is released.
    Smartphone opened the door to amazing capabilities within the palm of the consumers hand.
  • 2008 High demand for distance learning.

    The ability for students to attend school virtually really demonstrates the power of technology. Many times this allows people with restrictions, like time, distance, or even disabilities, the chance to go to school and succeed.
  • 2010 Increasing use of Virtual Learning.

    This new and growing idea is spreading all the way to the public schools K - 12 area. There are quite a few virtual schools in operation today, offering full curriculum and support for families.
  • 2011 Computer Assisted Language Learning

  • 2011 Educators support the use of social media as a tool in the classroom.

    Social media is a huge tool educators, colleges, universities are starting to use for organizational, communication, advertising, etc., to promote their products and services.