Erikson theory outline

  • Infancy (birth to 18 months)

    Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)

    Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  • Preschool (3 to 5 years)

    Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. Initiative vs. Guilt
  • School Age (6 to 11 years)

    Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Adolescence (12 to 18 years)

    Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Identity vs. Role Confusion
  • Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)

    Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)

    Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Generativity vs. Stagnation
  • Maturity(65 to death)

    Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair. Ego Integrity vs. Despair