Erika Santamaria's 52 Key Terms

  • fourteenth amendment

    Grants citizenship
  • 15th amendment

    prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (i.e., slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.
  • Jim crow laws

    were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    is a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal"
  • Sweatt v. Painter

    U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson. The case was influential in the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education four years later.
  • Amendment

    A change made to a basic law or constitution
    A change made to a pending motion or bill by a motion to amend
    made to a previously adopted law or motion
    A change made to a contract
  • NAACP

    Offers assistance to African Americans with regards to matters involving civil rights
  • 19th amendment

    was specifically intended to extend suffrage to women. It was proposed on June 4, 1919 and ratified on August 18, 1920.
  • league of united latin american citizens LULAC

    offers assistance to Hispanic Americans with regards to matters involving civil rights
  • Dolores Huerta

    Dolores Clara Fernandez Huerta is a labor leader and civil rights activist who, along with César Chávez, co-founded the National Farmworkers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. She was born on 4-10-1930.
  • Cesar Chavez

    Cesar Chavez was an American farm worker, labor leader and civil rights activist, who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association. He was born 3-31-1927 and died on 4-23-1993.
  • Social security

    refers to the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) federal program. The original Social Security Act (1935) and the current version of the Act, as amended,[3] encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs.
  • congress on racial equality CORE

    a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.
  • federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools. In its ruling, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, in an en banc decision, held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students

    federal court case that challenged racial segregation in Orange County, California schools. In its ruling, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, in an en banc decision, held that the segregation of Mexican and Mexican American students into separate "Mexican schools" was unconstitutional.
  • delgado v. bastrop ISD

    Landmark case in Texas that dealt with racial segregation
  • civil rights movement

    was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980. In many situations it took the form of campaigns of civil resistance aimed at achieving change by nonviolent forms of resistance. In some situations it was accompanied, or followed, by civil unrest and armed rebellion.
  • Hernandez v. Texas

    was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that decided that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
  • Brown vs. board of education of topeka kansas

    was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. Argued december 9, 1952. reargued december 8, 1953. decided may 17, 1954
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice.
  • Sonia Sotomayor

    Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving since August 2009. Sotomayor is the Court's 111th justice, its first Hispanic justice, and its third female justice. She was born on 6-26-1954.
  • Montgomery bus boycott

    a seminal event in the U.S. civil rights movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and
  • southern cristian leadership conference (SCLC)

    is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC was closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. The SCLC had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement
  • civil rights act of 1957

    it was an act signed off by eisenhower to grant voting privelages to blacks, basically because there was a lot of unrest facing the country due to black soldiers returning from WWII and feeling as though they were not being treated equally in a country that they had just returned home to after fighting a war for.
  • student nonviolent coordinating committee SNCC

    was one of the organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. It emerged from a series of student meetings led by Ella Baker held at Shaw University in April 1960.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

    Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was the longest-serving First Lady of the United States, holding the post from 1933 to 1945 during her husband Franklin D. Roosevelt's four terms in office. She was born on 10-11-1884 and died on 11-7-1962.
  • March on Washington

    was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It took place in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony during the march.
  • 24th amendment

    Passed to prevent voting discrimination against the poor by outlawing poll taxes
  • civil rights act of 1964

    In 1964, the United States passed one of its strongest civil rights laws in history, the Civil Rights Act. The act bans discrimination because of a person's color, race, national origin, religion, or sex; it primarily protects the rights of African Americans and other minorities. Major features of the Civil Rights Act include the freedom to vote and use hotels, restaurants, theaters, parks, and all other public places. The law also encouraged the desegregation of public schools and authorized th
  • The great society

    was a set of domestic programs in the United States announced by President Lyndon B. Johnson at Ohio University and subsequently promoted by him and fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s. Two main goals of the Great Society social reforms were the elimination of poverty and racial injustice.
  • Medicare

    Medicare is a national social insurance program, administered by the U.S. federal government since 1965, that guarantees access to health insurance for Americans ages 65 and older and younger people with disabilities as well as people with end stage renal disease
  • Affirmative action

    nown as positive discrimination in the United Kingdom, refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin"[1] into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business"
  • Upward bound

    a federally funded educational program within the United States. The program is one of a cluster of programs referred to as TRIO, all of which owe their existence to the federal Higher Education Act of 1965.
  • United farmworkers organizing committee (UFWOC)

    is a labor union created from the merging of two groups, the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC) led by Filipino organizer Larry Itliong, and the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) led by César Chávez. This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance
  • militant protests

    is the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence.
  • Black Panthers

    Used stratagies to achieve equal rights, which included violent forms of protest as well as militant groups
  • 25th amendment

    succession to the Presidency, and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
  • American indian movement (AIM)

    a Native American activist organization in the United States, founded in 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with an agenda that focuses on spirituality, leadership, and sovereignty.
  • Martin Luther King Jr.

    Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American clergyman, activist, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience. He was born on 1-15-1929 and died on 4-4-1968.
  • Tinker v. Des Moines ISD

    was a decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools.
  • La Raza Unida (mexican americans united)

    was an American political party centered on Chicano nationalism. During the 1970s the Party campaigned for better housing, work, and educational opportunities for Mexican-Americans.
  • 26th amendment

    the right of any citizens of the United States, who are 18 years or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on the account of age.
  • Lyndon Baines Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States, a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President of the United States. He was born on 8-27-1908 and died on 1-22-1973.
  • head start

    Head Start is a Federal program for preschool children from low-income families. The Head Start program is operated by local non-profit organizations in almost every county in the country. Children who attend Head Start participate in a variety of educational activities. They also receive free medical and dental care, have healthy meals and snacks, and enjoy playing indoors and outdoors in a safe setting
  • Title IX

    It states that there should be no sexism in public schools. In another words, both boys and girls have the same opportunities in public schools.
  • Edgewood ISD v. Kirby

    Landmark case in Texas, redistributed property taxes to proper districs, led to Robin Hood legislation
  • Thurgood Marshall

    Thurgood Marshall was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court, serving from October 1967 until October 1991. Marshall was the Court's 96th justice and its first African-American justice. Was born on 7-2-1908 and died on 12-24-1993
  • Orval Faubus

    Orval Eugene Faubus was the 36th Governor of Arkansas, serving from 1955 to 1967. He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of the Little Rock School District. He was born on 1-7-1910 and died on 12-14-1994.
  • Barbra Jordan

    Barbra Jordan was an American politician and a leader of the Civil Rights movement. She was the first African American elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction. She was born 2-21-1936 and died on 1-17-1996
  • Hector P. Garcia

    Hector Perez Garcia was a Mexican-American physician, surgeon, World War II veteran, civil rights advocate, and founder of the American G.I. Forum. He was born on 1-17-1914 and died on 7-26-1996.
  • George Wallace

    George Corley Wallace Jr. was an American politician and the 45th governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987. He was born on 8-25-1919 and died on 9-13-1998.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Louise McCauley Parks was an African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". She was born on 2-4-1913 and died on 10-24-2005
  • Betty Friedan

    Betty Friedan was an American writer, activist, and feminist. She was a leading figure in the Women's Movement in the United States. She was born 2-4-1921 and died 2-4-2006
  • National organization for women NOW

    is an organization founded in 1966 and which has a membership of 500,000 contributing members set up for the advancement of women.