Edward VI to Elizabeth I Tudor England

  • Jan 28, 1547

    Henry VIII died - Edward VI came to the throne

  • Period: Jan 28, 1547 to

    Edward VI to Elizabeth I

  • Jan 31, 1547

    Edward Seymour made Lord Protector

  • Jan 31, 1547

    Royal visitations

    (ignore date and month)
    Commissioners were sent to all bishoprics to examine the state of the clergy and the doctrine and practices of the Church
    Episcopal authroity was suspended until the visitattion had been completed in the Autumn
  • Feb 16, 1547

    Edward Seymour became Duke of Somerset

  • Feb 20, 1547

    Coronation of Edward VI

  • Mar 21, 1547

    Somerset made Lord Protector until Edward was 18

    Granted quasi-royal powers by Letters Patent.
  • May 24, 1547

    Vagrancy Act

    (Date and Month random - year important)
    Poor relief provision, housing and collections to the poor.
    Unpopular - savage attack on vangrants looking for work. Slavery and branded after 3 days.
  • Jun 24, 1547

    Henry II sent 4000 troops to Scotland

    (date random)
    Somerset directly intervened. With Dudley, led a land-sea attack on Scotland.
  • Jul 24, 1547

    Book of Homilies and Erasmus' Paraphrases

    (ignore date)
    Ordered these two books to be placed in every church.
    The Book of Homilies contained Protestant sermons, including some written by Cramner (with one supporting the Lutheran belief of justification by faith alone). Gardiner and Bonner objected and were imprisoned. Erasmus was a humanist. Almost all churches established both texts in their churches by 1549.
    Erasmus was a humanist.
  • Jul 26, 1547

    Royal Injunctions

    (date irrelevant)
    Orders were given to all clergy to prech in English, and have an English Bible and Protestant literature in every parish church. Superstituous images were removed.
  • Sep 10, 1547

    Battle of Pinkie - English victory

  • Sep 18, 1547

    Somerset withdrew forces - assumed he had sent clear message to Scots

  • Nov 4, 1547

    Parliament session running until 24th December

    Chantries Act - revived from Henry's last Parliament, but contained new preamble condemning prayers for the dead. (dissolved 3000 chantries)
    Act of Six Articles repealed - Effectively left the church without an official doctrine (got rid of Catholicism but no replacement).
    Treason Act repealed - allowed people to discuss religion freely without fear of arrest or imprisonment, and to print and publish freely.
  • Jan 24, 1548

    Series of proclamations to dampen Protestant unrest

    January to March - Privy Council felt the need to assert that transubstantiation was still technically in force and that Catholic rites still needed to be adhered to. The government was trying to achieve order and was playing for time while Cramner produced the new Prayer Book.
  • Feb 11, 1548

    All images to be removed from Chuches - little opposition

  • Apr 24, 1548

    Proclamation stating only authorised clergy to preach

    Gov. felt this was necessary because of the flood of unauthorised Protestant preachers that had followed the repeal of the treason and heresy laws.
  • Jun 24, 1548

    Proclamations issued enforcing all statutes against enclosure for grazing

    (date random)
  • Jun 24, 1548

    French fleet landed 10000 troops in Scotland

    (date random)
  • Jul 24, 1548

    5000 English troops besieged at Haddington Castle

    (date random)
  • Aug 23, 1548

    Somerset sends 14000 to Haddington to recapture castle

  • Aug 24, 1548

    Mary Queen of Scots moved to France

    (date random)
  • Sep 23, 1548

    Proclamation stating no preaching until new liturgy introduced.

    A liturgy is the instructions setting out how a church service must be performed.
    This is a clear sign that the governmentfelt that the situation was slipping out of control.
  • Dec 1, 1548

    First Book of Common Prayer

    (date random)
    Manual written by Cramner outlining the liturgy - what he thought would be socially acceptable. Catholics saw as implicitly Protestant and Protestants believed it smacked of Popery. Services in English, Sacraments (only 5 - Eucharist, baptism, last rites, confirmation andmarriage), Communion in both kinds, clerical marriage, (purgatory unclear), no prayers for the dead, worship of saints discouraged, traditional robes, transubstantiation, and fast and holy days.
  • Jan 1, 1549

    Fortifying France cost £580,393

    (Random date and month - year important)
  • Jan 24, 1549

    Act of Uniformity

    (date random)
    Made the Book of Common Prayer official liturgy. Effectively enforced, despite pockets of resistance.
  • Mar 24, 1549

    5% tax on perosnal property and a sheep tax passed

    (date random)
  • May 24, 1549

    Rebellions glore!

    (date irrelvant - they were throughout!)
    Suffolk - Sir Anthony Wingfield was able to quell the unrest with pardons and promises of improvements. One hanged.
    Yorkshire - July - chantry commissioner killed. Suppressed by local gentry
    Bedfordshire - July - suppressed locally
    Leicestershire and Rutland - Marquis of Dorset and the Earl of Huntingdon successfully suppressed an uprising in August and September. Small number of executions.
  • May 24, 1549

    Even more rebellions!

    Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire - Sustained uprisings led by conservative clergy in July. They were militarily suppressed by Lord Grey. Local gentry then used their own retainers to mop up remaining areas of trouble.
    Northamptonshire - Local gentry suppressed an uprising in July with their own retainers. No executions.
    Derbyshire, Shropshire and Nottinghamshire - Uprisings contained by the Earl of Shrewsbury
  • May 24, 1549

    More rebellions

    Essex - suppressed by Lord Rich, who executed two rebels in July
    Kent - suppressed by Sir Thomas Wyatt and other JPs. Two rebels executed in May
    Surrey - suppressed by local gentry with no executions
    Berkshire - suppressed by local gentry with no executions
    Hampshire - unrest in May - suppressed locally
    Somerset - unrest in May in which encolosures were attacked - suppressed locally
    Wiltshire - in May violently suppressed by Sir William Herbert and his retainers after they attacked his park
  • Jun 10, 1549

    Western Rebellion

    Leaders - Humphrey Arundell and Robert Welsh
    Causes - Complaints about taxes on sheep and cloth. Taxes on food in first list, second influenced by theologian concerns (unfamiliarity with new practices). William Body intensified antagonism with his heavy handed investigation into church property.
    Demands - catholic reinstatement in line with Henry VIII's reign. Dedicated clergy who work for community and educate people. Holy decree of forefathers be observed.
  • Jun 10, 1549

    Western Rebellion cont.

    Main base: Bodmin in Cornwall, Sampford Courtenay in Devon and all met in Crediton on 20th June
    Hellier tried to negotiate in Devon but was hacked to pieces. Carew went to Crediton on 21st June but aggravated rebels.
    Initially no confrontation by the gov. troops, as they were dealing with Scottish border issues. Lord Russell wrote concilitary response, to try to find peace settlement.
    After confrontations, finally rebels defeated August 16th at Sampford. 3000 killed - Welsh hung at his church
  • Jul 6, 1549

    Kett's Rebellion contin. 2

    Main Base - Norwich marched on 10th July. Mousehold Heath encamped on 12th July with 16000 people.
    Local gentry attempted to make peaceful relations. Sherriff nearly arrested when trying to disperse rebels. 21st July - gov. would pardon those who dispersed. Promised - prohibit landlords from acting as farmers or clothiers, to reduce price of wool by 1/3 and to appoint commissioners to reform abuses. As didn't accept, the Herald ordered the arrest of Kett, but turned ugly so retreated.
  • Jul 6, 1549

    Kett's Rebellion

    Norfolk - leader Robert Kett
    Enclosure - thought Somerset was siding with the people. Opposed it in wooded or pastural areas, stopped them doing what they wanted. Rents had been increased at time of rapid inflation. Rack renting - hyping up cost of rent for little people. Didn't like gentry and local gov. - felt not heard. Felt Prayer Book not Protestant enough. John Flowerdew had bought local abbey and was pulling down, anger from locals.
  • Jul 6, 1549

    Kett's Rebellion cont.

    Demands - congregation choose own clergy, parishoners choose own vicar, clergy for whole community. Get rid of most of enclosure apart from affron land. More common land not owned by the gentry. Fair taxes, marsh land to be free. If clergy incompetent, lose role and benefits, and should allow people to choose replacement. Need educated clergy. Certain size of bushels in measures for fair price. Want direct to central gov. and jet up own court. No dovehouses unless by tradition or ancient custom.
  • Jul 6, 1549

    Kett's Rebellion contin. 3

    Gov. sent small army of 1800 led by William Parr on 30th July, but Kett attacked and recaptured Norwich, after only 20 accepted pardon. Comminssions issued for militias to be rasied in all round Norfolk, with 12000 troops led by Northumberland coming down from Scottish border, arriving on 23rd August, with 3 days resistance before rebels went to Dussindale, resulting in slaughtering of 3000 rebels. Kett arrested and tried for treason and hung on 23rd Nov. Only 49 executions.
  • Aug 24, 1549

    Henry II declares war on England

    (date random)
    Henry II took personal command of the siege of Boulogne.
  • Sep 19, 1549

    Withdrew forces from Haddington Castle

    There had been much disease and plague in the camp, and Somerset didn't have any more resources to secure the castle.
    Needed army to stop rebellions
  • Oct 11, 1549

    Somerset dismissed from offices and imprisoned

  • Nov 24, 1549

    Parlimanet removed all laws against clerical marriage, All ecclesiatical courts in King's name

    (date random)
  • Dec 25, 1549

    Proclamation issued ordering destruction of remaining imagery

  • Jan 24, 1550

    New reformed Ordinal

    (date random)
    The Ordinal detailed the ceremony to be followed when clergy were ordained. The radical protestant Hooper was outraged by the swearing of an oath of saintts and by the need to wear a white surplice. A controversy rages between Hooper and Ridley until Hooper was forced to back down.
  • Feb 21, 1550

    Earl of Warwick appointed Lord President of the Council

  • Mar 28, 1550

    Treaty of Boulogne - returned to France

    Returned for £133333 and garrisons withdrawn
    Although reduced expenditure on military fortifications and navy, it still continued, and Winchester enforced stricter methods of accounting.
  • Apr 24, 1550

    Charles V order that the Catholic Inquistion in the Netherlands could arrest any heretic

    (date irrelevant)
    Led to the collapse of the Antwerp cloth trade.
  • May 24, 1550

    Sheep tax and Vagrancy Act repealed

    (date and month random)
  • Nov 24, 1550

    Removal of stone altars and replaced by wooden ones

    (date irrelevant)
  • Feb 6, 1551

    Sir Thomas Gresham in Antwerp 1551-52

    (date and month irrelevant)
    Paid off royal debt on Antwerp market. Improved worth of Sterling. Paid off in 2 years and renegotiated at 12% interest, whereas Emperor borrowing at 16%.
    However, Antwerp Market did collapse in 1551-2, affecting the cloth trade
  • Apr 1, 1551

    Ending of debasement of the coinage

    (Date irrelevant - month and year important)
    Didn't come to an end properly until 1560 - told people to lower prices and trust the coinage without giving concrete reasons to do so
  • May 24, 1551

    Social policy

    (Date and month)
    By 1551 Northumberland's government had taken action to control stocks of grain to relieve the crisis caused by the harvest failures. Northumberland kept order by traditional means to prevent widespread disorder.
  • Aug 1, 1551

    Edward attended PC meetings (aged 14)

  • Oct 11, 1551

    Earl of Warwick (John Dudley) became Duke of Northumberland

  • Jan 21, 1552

    Somerset executed

  • Jan 22, 1552

    Somerset tried and executed

  • Jan 24, 1552

    Treason Acts were enforced

    (date random)
    This made it an offence to question the Royal Supremacy or any articles of faith in the Church
  • Jan 27, 1552

    Second Book of Common Prayer

    (date random)
    Removed all traces of Catholicism and clearly established a Eucharist ceremony in line with Calvin's belief in a 'spiritual presence', being called the Lord's supper. Prayers for the dead and the wearing of vestments removed, with stone altars being replaced by wooden ones. Consubstantation. Despite its radical Protestant views, it was still opposed by some reformers, who resented being expected to kneel during communion.
  • Mar 22, 1552

    Agreed Edward should become King in October 1553

    (Not really specific date for this - just says 'Spring')
  • Mar 24, 1552

    Agreement reached that established Scottish border where it had been before Henry VIII's campaigns

    (date irrelevant)
  • Apr 26, 1552

    Second Act of Uniformity

    (date random)
    Enforced 2nd Book of Common Prayer - became offence for both clergy and laity not to attend C of E services.
  • Jun 21, 1552

    Edward made a progress through South of England

  • Nov 23, 1552

    Black Rubric proclamation

    (date random)
    Explained that kneeling to receive the Communion was for the sake of good order and practicality, not out of idolatry. Edward personally intervened in this debate.
  • Nov 24, 1552

    42 Articles submitted

    They were issued by the Government on 9th June 1553 but never became parliamentary law. They were based on Cramner's ideas. The articles were strongly Protestant, being based on the doctrine of justification by faith alone and, loosely, on Calvin's belief in predestination (God has chosen everybody's path). The 42 articles became the basis for the 39 Articles in Elizabeth's reign.
  • Jan 1, 1553

    Debts reduced to £180000

  • Jan 1, 1553

    Short catechism produced

    (Date and month irrelevant)
    A catechism was a manual for teaching the main beliefs of the Church. It was written in a Q and A format. (Luther and Calvin produced these).
  • Feb 1, 1553

    Edward becomes ill with pulmonary tuberculosis

  • May 10, 1553

    Willoughby and Chancellor crossed the Arctic Ocean

    They then travelled overland to Moscow in one of the first attempts to the find the North East passage to Asia.
  • May 15, 1553

    Privy Council in the Tower for protection. Mary at Framlingham

    The Privy Council were afraid about the turn of events and didn't send the reinforcements requested by Northumberland. Mary had moved to Framlingham Castle with large numbers of supporters declaring their support for Mary.
  • May 21, 1553

    Lady Jane Grey married Guildford Dudley (North's son)

  • Jun 12, 1553

    Edward changes name on will to Lady Jane

  • Jul 6, 1553

    Death of Edward from septicaemia - kept secret for 2 days

  • Jul 8, 1553

    Start of succession crisis

    The Lord Mayor of London, aldermen and reps of the Merchant Adventurers were summoned to Greenwich to be informed of Edward's death. They were forced to the sign Devise for the new succession.
    The Council ordered sheriffs and justices of nearby counties to raise forces.
  • Jul 9, 1553

    Lady Jane Grey was taken to Northumberland's house

  • Jul 10, 1553

    Lady Jane Grey proclaimed Queen, but Mary had too

    Lady Jane Grey was taken to the Tower. Mary had proclaimed herself Queen in East Anglia. Appealed to Charles V for help. Proclamations and letters of summons were issued by Mary. The Council rejected her claim, and Mary mustered up the troops.
  • Jul 11, 1553

    London was quiet, so Northumberland decided to go to Norfolk to restore order

  • Jul 12, 1553

    Reports arrived from East Anglia of people supporting Mary

  • Jul 13, 1553

    Northumberland decides to head to Norfolk

    Northumberland reckoned he had enough strength to defeat Mary, but was afraid to leave London, for fear of Catholic noblemen Winchester and Arundel. However, he didn't trust anyone else to go, so set off to Norfolk with 2000 troops of limited reliability.
  • Jul 16, 1553

    Northumberland reached Cambridge

  • Jul 17, 1553

    Northumberland retreats

    Northumberland's forces started to desert and refused to go beyond Bury St Edmunds because of rumours that Mary had 30000 in her camp. Northumberland retreated to Cambridge
  • Jul 19, 1553

    Mary has strong support

    Mary's forces numbered 20000 and had been bolstered by the arrival of the Earl of Oxford. In London, almost all the council left the Tower and said they had fallen into error. People in the streets of the capital celebrated the accession of Mary. The Duke of Suffolk announced to his daughter that she was no longer queen. Mary was proclaimed Queen in London.
  • Jul 20, 1553

    Arundel arrested Northumberland in Cambridge

  • Aug 3, 1553

    Mary entered London to great celebrations

  • Aug 18, 1553

    Proclamation by Mary on religion

    'mindeth not to compel any her said subkects thereunto [i.e. religious conformity] until such time as further order by common assent may be taken therein'.
    Many prominent Protestant clergy were deprived of their livings.
  • Aug 22, 1553

    Northumberland tried and executed for changing the succession

  • Sep 14, 1553

    Latimer, Hooper, Ridley, Roger and others were imprisoned

  • Sep 14, 1553

    Cramner arrested

  • Oct 1, 1553

    Mary's coronation

  • Oct 5, 1553

    Parliament session lasting until Dec.

    Parliament met and refused to repeal the Act of Supremacy
    Parliament did pass an Act of Repeal which undid all of the Edwardian Reformation, revived the Mass, ritual worship and clerical celibacy, and implicitly reaffirmed the traditional doctrine of the Lord's Supper (i.e. the Catholic belief in transubstantiation). This restored the Church to what it had been in 1547 under the Act of Six Articles
  • Oct 10, 1553

    Charles' ambassador, Renard, presents official proposal of marriage

  • Nov 16, 1553

    Mary informed Commons that she was to marry Philip of Spain

  • Dec 5, 1553

    Parliament dissolved - relinquished title Supreme Head of the Church

  • Jan 4, 1554

    Mass exodus of Protestants to Germany and Switzerland, estimated to have been some 800 in all

  • Jan 8, 1554

    Publication of royal marriage treaty

    (date irrelevant)
  • Jan 12, 1554

    Mary made aware of plot (Wyatt's) by Spanish Ambassador - cross examination of Courtenay confirmed

  • Jan 25, 1554

    Wyatt raised his standard

    Conspirators decided to act after Queen found out about rebellion. They had support from the French. Four-pronged rising failed to get off the ground in Devon, Leicestershire or on the Welsh borders. In Devon they were mindful of Western Rebellion events and there was lack of support in the other areas. Wyatt was able to assemble force of 2500 to 3000, as a leading Kent landowner. Wasn't able to attract support from nobility and couldn't attract others to join nationally.
  • Jan 25, 1554

    Mary acted against rebellion

    Sent troops under Duke of Norfolk to meet the rebels. However, many of royal soldiers deserted to Wyatt. Wyatt's force had grown to 3000 and London appeared to be at his mercy. Over next few days situation changed dramatically. She was soon rallying the troops with words of flattery and personal appeal which proclaimed Wyatt a traitor. Wyatt hesitated and went to Cooling Castle to collect Lord Cobham. Delay gave London chance to prepare and London Bridge was fortified. Waited again, morale lost.
  • Jan 27, 1554

    Wyatt established HQ at Rochester

    Soon he was joined by further forces from other areas of the county, railled by the anti-Spanish propaganda issuing from Wyatt's rebellion
  • Feb 6, 1554

    Wyatt finally crosses Thames

    Crosses at Kingston and was another day before reached Knightsbridge. The main body of the rebel force was attacked, byt Wyatt was able to proceed to Charing Cross where gov. forces fled at the first shot. Confusion and chaos followed and there were soon rumours of royal defeat as the rebels approached Ludgate. Locals drew back to allow Wyatt and his men through. However, Ludgate remained closed and the rebellion was defeated. Wyatt's rebel army were attacked as they retreated.
  • Feb 12, 1554

    Lady Jane executed - Princess Elizabeth imprisoned in the Tower

  • Mar 6, 1554

    Mary formally betrothed to Philip

  • Mar 16, 1554

    Royal Injunctions

    (date random)
    Ordered bishops to suppress heresy, remove married clergy, reordain clergy who had been ordained under the English Ordinal, and restore Holy Days, processions and ceremonies. Bishop Gardiner began to deprive married priests of their livings. In the diocese of Norwich, 243 priests lost their posts, 90 in Bath and Wells. Eventually 10-25% of clergy were deprived for being married, although some were reinstated when they conformed.
  • Apr 12, 1554

    Parliament agreed to reintroduction of heresy laws with promise that former monastic lands would not be restored to Church ownership

  • Apr 25, 1554

    Marriage treaty approved by Parliament

    A child of the marriage would inherit England and the Low Countries but not Spain
    If no heirs, or if Mary dies before Philip, neither he nor his heirs would have any claim to Eng. throne
    Philip couldn't possess any sovereign authourity in own right
    He could not promote foreigners to hold office in Eng.
    He had to uphold the laws of Eng.
    Not allowed to take the Queen or any children they have out of the country without permission
    Eng. upholds treaties of 1543 and 1546 with Spain about Neth.
  • May 22, 1554

    Elizabeth freed

  • Jul 23, 1554

    Philip and Mary meet for first time

    Betrothal ring from Emperor not Philip
    Language barriers - common language French which she spoke and he understood.
    Venetian Ambassador about Philip 'Being by himself is his greatest pleasure'
  • Jul 25, 1554

    Mary married Philip

  • Nov 25, 1554

    Mary thought she was pregnant

    (date and month irrelevant - towards the end of 1554)
  • Nov 28, 1554

    Cardinal Pole reunited the English and Roman Catholic churches

    Returned to England: The sentence of excommunication was lifted from England under Pope Julius III.
    Parliament passed the Second Act of Repeal, which undid all anti-papal legislation since 1529 and the Henrican Reformation.
  • Nov 30, 1554

    Pole granted absolution to the whole realm and welcomed 'the return of the lost sheep' in the Pope's name

  • Jan 5, 1555

    Bishop Bonner's Book of Homilies

    (date random)
  • Jan 8, 1555

    Mary appointed a commission to consider refounding some of the religious houses

    (date random)
  • Jan 16, 1555

    Act of Repeal received royal assent

  • Feb 4, 1555

    John Rogers, a biblical translator, became the first Protestant martyr of the reign, when he was burned under the restored heresy laws

  • Feb 9, 1555

    Hooper burned - Foxe's book of Martyrs

  • May 25, 1555

    Disturbance in London

    (date irrelevant - towards end of may 1555)
    Anti-Spanish feeling - involved about 500 men and 5 or 6 deaths
  • Jun 13, 1555

    Disturbance in London

    A mob attacked a church in which a number of Spaniards were worshipping.
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Philip became rule of the Netherlands, leaving England. Harvest failure

    (date irrelevant)
  • Oct 11, 1555

    Abdication of Charles V and splitting of his Empire between Philip II and Ferdinand

    (date random - between Oct and Jan)
  • Oct 16, 1555

    Bishop Latimer and Ridley burned at the stake for heresy in Oxford

  • Nov 12, 1555

    Death of Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester

  • Nov 13, 1555

    Cramner deprived of the see of Canterbury

  • Dec 10, 1555

    Cardinal Pole made Archbishop of Canterbury and London Synod met under him until Feb 1556

    (date irrelevant)
  • Jan 16, 1556

    Charles V abdicated - Philip became King of Spain

  • Feb 5, 1556

    Treaty of Vaucelles established peace between France and Spain

    Mary acted as Mediator
  • Feb 21, 1556

    Synod issued Twelve Decrees

    (date irrelevant)
    Decrees on clerical discipline, against abuses such as absenteeism, pluralism, simony and heresy. Refoundation of the Benedictine House at Westminister. Many more Protestants burned for heresy.
  • Feb 25, 1556

    Alliance between France and the Habsburg-Valois War

    Paul IV became Pope - a Neapolitan he wanted to fight the Habsburgs over their control of Naples. To achieve this, the pope allied with France and Mary found herself brought into conflict with the Papacy that she had struggles for so long to rejoin. Strain on relation - wants to impress Pope but her husband needed support
  • Mar 18, 1556

    Sir Henry Dudley arrested after plot to place Elizabeth on throne

  • Mar 21, 1556

    Cramner was burned at Oxford. Pole deprived of position as legate

    Cramner recanted all retractions and was burned at the stake in Oxford.
    Cardinal Pole argued with Pope Paul IV
  • Mar 22, 1556

    Pole consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury

  • May 21, 1556

    Cramner burned at the stake in Oxford

  • May 26, 1556

    Start of typhus epidemics

    (date and month random)
    These were followed by influenza, which killed 1/10 people. Death rate twice as high as normal. Population fell and may have dropped as much as 5% 1556-61
  • Sep 14, 1556

    Worst harvest of the century

    Heavy rain caused the worst harvest failures of the century (apart from 1596) which resulted in unprecedented rise in the price of grain and widespread famine throughout 1555 to 1556
  • Jan 4, 1557

    Refoundation of some small religious houses

    (date and month random)
  • Jan 26, 1557

    England sent troops to the Netherlands - they waanted to protect this trade-sensitive region - centre of cloth trade

    (date irrelevant)
  • Mar 20, 1557

    Philip returned to England (departed again in July)

  • Mar 25, 1557

    Philip returned to England to press for support in the war

    Mary didn't support until forced to
  • Apr 25, 1557

    Landing of Thomas Stafford at Scarborough

    He brought French weapons with him. France had allowed exiled English Protestants into France.
  • Jun 9, 1557

    England declared war on France

    (date irrelevant)
    They were rumours building that Henry II wanted Calais, so England went to protect the Netherlands, and declared war on France.
  • Jun 24, 1557

    Cardinal Pole recalled to Rome to face heresy charges. Mary refused to let him go

    (date irrelevant)
  • Jun 26, 1557

    Pole recalled to Rome to answer charges of heresy

    (date irrelevant)
    Mary refused him permission to go and rejected his replacement as legate
  • Jul 25, 1557

    Widespread death and sickness in England

    (date irrelevant)
  • Aug 2, 1557

    Alice Downs (60 year old widow) and 5 others burned outside Colchester

  • Aug 10, 1557

    Victory for Philip over Henry II at St Quentin

    7000 English/Scottish soldiers were send to aid 70000 Spanish and Imperial troops, although there was minimal support from England
  • Jan 7, 1558

    Calais surrendered to the French

  • Jan 23, 1558

    Capture of Calais Pale by French - loss of territory humiliating

  • Feb 12, 1558

    Second suspected pregnancy

    (date and month irrelevant - towards beginning of 1558)
  • Mar 30, 1558

    Mary altered her will to exclude all but her own children from the succession

    On her way to succeeding to succeeding but doesn't have children. Tudor dynasty still secured under Henry's will on 30th December 1546
  • May 26, 1558

    Book of Rates introduced

    (date and month irrelevant)
    Fixed level of duty to be paid on certain products. Levels were last fixed in 1507 and hundreds of commondities were untaxed or taxed well below level of inflation. New rates were on average 100% higher. Customs revenues rose drom £29315 in 1556-7 to £82797 in 1558=9, but too late though for Mary to feel benefit.
  • May 30, 1558

    Anthony Jenkinson and the Muscovy Trading Company

    (date and month random)
    From 1558, overland trading expeditions under Anthony Jenkinson travelled through Russia to Asia, and the Muscovy Trading Company - heavily backed by the court - exported cloth, lead, tin, food and pewter and imported cables, cordage, tallow, wax and furs. This trade was worth an estimated £25,000 per year.
  • Sep 24, 1558

    Death and widespread and severe sickness and influenza epidemic

    (date irrelevant)
  • Nov 8, 1558

    Estimated that Crown lands raised £40000 per annum, as rents had been raised

  • Nov 10, 1558

    Five Protestants were burned at the stake in Canterbury

    In all, about 300 people were executed during Mary's reign. Thomas Bentham, a returned exile, was ministering to the Protestants of London
  • Nov 17, 1558

    Death of Mary and Cardinal Pole - Elizabeth comes to the throne

    Elizabeth remained at Hatfield for 6 days, before going to the Charterhouse, a dissolved Carthusian monastery on the edge of the city of London.
  • Nov 17, 1558

    Debt at £300000 from £185000 - although increased Loades said 'considerable achievement'

  • Nov 20, 1558

    William Cecil appointed Principal Secretary

  • Dec 14, 1558

    Burial of Mary at Westminister

  • Jan 1, 1559

    By 1559 purchasing power of agricultural workers wages had dropped to 59% of what it had been 50 years earlier, as result of inflation

  • Jan 15, 1559

    Elizabeth's coronation

  • Jan 25, 1559

    Parliament opened

    MPs declared loyalty to the new Queen. Some MPs asked Elizabeth to marry as soon as possible (she closed Parliament in May to avoid the issue)
    John White (Bishop of Winchester) and Thomas Watson (Bishop of Lincoln) were imprisoned after their public dispute with Protestants.
    When Elizabeth put through ERS, only one refused. House of Lords made smaller so Queen could keep under control.
  • Apr 3, 1559

    Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis - ending of Habsburg-Valois War

    Confirmed loss of Calais and french domination of Straits of Dover
  • Apr 29, 1559

    Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy

    Act of Supremacy - Rejection of Papal supremacy, heresy laws repealed. Oath of Supremacy (penalities laid down for not swearing). Royal visitation of the church restored from Henry VIII as well as his Reformation legislation. Communion in both kinds. Inspection made by commissioners - doesn't specify what 'heresy' was, giving commissioners huge amounts of power. 'Supreme Governor' - appeased Catholicism, misogynists and God. Looking after religion, others in Church need to make sure not corrupt.
  • Apr 29, 1559

    Parliament passed the Act of Uniformity

    Only passed by 21 votes to 18 in the House of Lords. Second Book of common prayer 1552 (Ed's reign) enofrced with modifications - 'in remembrance' and 'given' permitted, kneel or stand (leading to the Black Rubric controversy). Ornaments and dress allowed (going to before 1549 Act of Uniformity, Protestants dissatisfied). Non attenders fined one shilling (5p) Allowing a variation, middle way between Catholicism and Protestantism.
  • Apr 29, 1559

    Parliament passed the Royal Injunctions

    Liturgy of the Church services (way services are conducted). 'Suppression of superstitution'. Reinstated 1547 emhasis, administering communion at table rather than altar. Pilgrimage and candles - 'works devised by man's fantasies'. Parish churches had to buy English Bible and Erasmus' Paraphases. Visitors nominated by Cecil to ensure strongly Protestant. Had to have certificate signed by 2 JPs if wanted clerical marriage. 'Forbear all vain and contentious disputations in matters in religion'.
  • Feb 27, 1560

    Treaty of Berwick

    Agreement to send financial aid/naval/military forces to the Scots (the Protestants Lords who now ran the country)
    Cecil's motive - Fear of Catholicism/French links with Scotland. Traditional Tudor motive of securing England's borders. 'British Strategy'.
    Cecil - intervention in Scotland in 1560 secured the success of the Scottish reformation and the subsequent expulsion of French troops from Scotland.
  • May 27, 1560

    A latin edition of the Prayer Book

    (date and month random)
    Allowed requiem celebrations for the dead. A Requiem Mass is a Catholic Mass for the repose of the souls of the dead.
    Appeasement for Catholics
  • May 27, 1560

    Elizabeth's personal church

    (date and month random)
    Elizabeth's own church had a restored crucifix by 1560, and candles to the altar in her chapel. Tried to reestablish full Catholic vestments.
  • May 29, 1560

    Philip's New World Territories

    (date, month, year not exact)
    Conquered Mexico, Peru, Chile and Caribbean
    No 'alien' (foreign country) could trade without a licence - all goods had to be registered in Seville.
  • Jul 6, 1560

    Treaty of Edinburgh - English and French agreement to withdraw forces from Scotland (token force of Frenchmen to stay in Scotland).

    Mary gave up her claim to the English throne (although she never fully approved this). Protestant government established under Lord James Stuart, the illegitmate half-brother of Mary Q of S.
    Scots problem resolved without war against France. Elizabeth now seen as 'Protector of the Protestant rebels'. Therefore, friendly relations with France and Spain now difficult to maintain.
    Mary Queen of Scots/religion/succession = foreign policy interwined with domestic policy
    Success attributed to Cecil
  • May 27, 1561

    Contemplates banning clerical marriage

    Elizabeth contemplated banning clerical marriage. Eventually, she compromisedand evicted the wives and children of higher clergy from colleges and cathedral closes. Therefore, bans clerical educators from having families.
  • Mar 1, 1562

    The Massacre of Vassy provoked the first French Religious War

    Guise vs Bourbons - divided over religion.
    Catherine de Medici struggled to preserve monarchy for sons.
    Elizabeth sent military invention and loans to the Huguenots.
    Dudley and Nicholas Throckmorton pressured her to do this as a United France under the Guise family would not be in the interest's of England
  • Apr 11, 1562

    Jewel's 'An Apology of the Church of England'

    (date and month irrelevant)
    Bishop of Salisbury - lived in exile in Mary's reign. Asserting that the C of E was returning to the true position that had been abandoned by the Roman Catholic church many centuries earlier. Asserting the belief that there was an essential continuity between the early Church, as described in the Acts of the Apostles, and the beliefs of reformers (humanists). Returning to true position
  • May 30, 1562

    Leicester became Privy Councillor

    (date and month random)
  • May 30, 1562

    Council don't let Elizabeth go to meet Mary Queen of Scots

    (date and month random)
    Sir Nicholas Bacon: 'It is very evident that no hope of good and great fear of ill is to be conceived by this interview, and therefore for my part I cannot allow it'.
  • May 30, 1562

    The crisis of 1562

    (Date and month random)
    Elizabeth was stricken was smallpox and they weren't sure if she was to survive.
    Succession and marriage crisis - if she died, there was no clear successor as she had no children, and every councillor wanted someone different. Leicester obviously wanted to marry her, Cecil managed to prevent this.
    Petition for the marriage - challenging her royal prerogative
  • Sep 22, 1562

    Treaty of Hampton Court

    Promised troops and loans to the Huguenots.
    Elizabeth feared Guise victory and like possibility of recovering Calais
    Cecil concerned with security
    Dudley supported intervention for own political ambition.
  • Jan 12, 1563

    Parliament Opened

    MPs summoned to grant money to finance foreign policy towards Scotland. They passed a law which said that all apprenticeships must last for 7 years. MPs asked Elizabeth to get married soon. Elizabeth gave vague reply and closed Parliament 10th April 1563
  • Apr 10, 1563

    The Convocation had wanted...

    (Convocation is church Parliament):
    Clarification of doctrine, with support of Jewel's apology and catechisms.
    Reform to Book of Common Prayer
    Improvements to law
    Reform of finances
  • Apr 10, 1563

    39 Articles published

    (Parliament session 12th Jan to 10th April)
    The Convocation of 1563 of Canterbury and York met at the same parliament.
    39 Articles - defined doctrinal position of the Church. Based on 42 Articles 1552. Justification by faith and predestination. 'Church hath power to decree rites or ceremonies and authority in controversies of faith' but not contrary to scripture. Failed to clarify meaning of Scripture.
    Not given legal force until 1571
    Overall, settlement what she mostly desired.
  • May 29, 1563

    Granvelle bans English imports to the Netherlands

    (date and month random)
    Believed Protestantism was spreading by the English with the Queen's backing to the Netherlands, and so in1563, using outbreak of plague in London as an excuse, Granvelle banned import of all English cloth. When Queen sopped all Netherlands imports as retaliation, trade between the countries ceased.
    Resulted in economic suffering in both countries - trade resumed after 12 months. Calvinist riots in towns led to brief religious toleration period
  • Apr 11, 1564

    Treaty of Troyes

    Ending of the First War of Religion.
    Confirmed French control of Calais after the defeat of the Huguenots and their alliance with the Catholics to drive England out due to their lack of support.
    Philip II complained about Elizabeth supporting Protestant rebels and showed France could make life difficult. Therefore French more likely to accept new Protestant regime in Scotland. Elizabeth saw military intervention as a disaster and returned to policy of caution and reluctance to aid Prots rebels.
  • May 29, 1564

    John Hawkins and slave trade

    (date and month irrelevant)
    Voyages in 1562,4,7 to break Spanish trading monopoly in Americas.
    In his second expedition, Cecil, Leicester and Elizabeth received 60% of investment in John Hawkins expedition to West Africa - slave trade.
    English maritime ventures mainly based on piratical or illegal trade with Spanish empire. Ended all hopes of Spanish peace
  • Sep 30, 1566

    Parliament opened

    MPs agreed to taxes to pay for an army Elizabeth had sent to France. A few MPs threatened to refuse to approve taxes until Elizabeth made plans to marry. Paul Wentworth, Puritan, said that MPs had the right to free speech to discuss the Queen's marriage. Elizabeth angrily told MPs that it was not convenient (royal prerogative) to discuss her personal affairs. Then she closed Parliament 2nd Jan 1567
  • Feb 9, 1567

    Murder of Lord Darnley - explosion of lodgings at Kirk o'Field

  • May 30, 1567

    Council split on Archduke Charles of Austria marriage

    (date and month random)
    Leiecester works desperately to prevent the match, while Norfolk, Sussex and Cecil are in favour. The division causes Elizabeth to hesitate and reject Charles
  • Jul 24, 1567

    Mary Queen of Scots forced to abdicate in favour of her son

  • Aug 22, 1567

    Duke of Alva sent to Netherlands

    Philip II announced his determination to hush heresy throughout the Netherlands and sent a vast Spanish army, under Duke of Alva, to do this. Alva's arrival led many Protestant refugees to exile in England, despite Elizabeth's public condemnation of rebels. These events affected Elizabeth's view of Philip II and his intentions towards England over religion.
    Elizabeth embarked on policy of harassment by encouraging seamen (Francis Drake) to make life difficult for Spanish in New World.
  • May 30, 1568

    The Merchant Adventurers

    (date and month random)
    Didn't want to rely on the single market of Antwerp cloth trade. Cecil argued for reduction in the number of luxury imports and the diversification of the cloth market.
    Therefore the Merchant Adventurers transferred from the Antwerp cloth trade to Emden, Hamburg, Stade and Middelburg.
  • Sep 23, 1568

    San Juan de Ulua

    Devastating attack on Hawkins at San Juan de Ulua in 1568 increased the tension between England and Spain
  • Oct 19, 1568

    York Conference

    (date irrelevant)
    Was confernece to determine whether or not there was sufficient evidence against Mary to investigate Darnley's murder further. The failure of find Mary either innocent or guilty gave English government ground to hold her in capitivity, and Elizabeth was free (didn't have to go to York or meet Mary) from having to act decisively.
  • Nov 28, 1568

    Seizure of Spanish Bullion ships

    (date random)
    Spanish ships took refuge from pirates in English ports. The bullion was a loan provided by Geonese bankers. Cecil convinced Liz that money still technically property of bankers. Queen decided to take over the loan herself to make life as difficult as possible for Alva in the Netherlands, and revenge for San Juan de Ulua. Spain's response far more severe than anticipated and Cecil came under criticism for resulting deterioration in relationship between Spain and England.
  • Nov 30, 1568

    Trade embargo

    (after Spanish bullion seizure in 1568)
    Alva seized all English ships and property in the Netherlands while Philip did the same in Netherlands. Total embargo on trade between England and Spain developed.
  • Dec 27, 1568

    William Allens founds the first training college for seminary priests at Douai, Flanders

  • Jun 10, 1569

    A rebellion breaks out against English rule in Munster

    James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald proposes asking the Spanish for support against English
  • Nov 9, 1569

    The start of the Northern Rebellion

    The Earl of Northumberland joins the Earl of Westmorland and his forces at Westmorland's castle at Brancepeth.
    Began as a conspiracy at court to marry the Duke of Norfolk and Mary Queen of Scots, to have her proclaimed heir to the English throne, to overthrow Elizabeth and Cecil, and to restore Catholicism. Mary Q of S figurehead for rebellion.
  • Nov 13, 1569

    Sussex sends out commissions to raise 1500 foot soldiers

    Many men are torn between local loyalty to the Earls and national loyalty to the Queen. Few dare to join Sussex as could be evicted if didn't support local Earls.
  • Nov 14, 1569

    The rebels march south to Durham Cathedral, tear down any Protestant images and celebrate Mass

  • Nov 16, 1569

    Sussex writes to the Privy Council to tell them of the difficulties he is having raising an army

    Needs urgent support, can't down by themselves. Waits 3 days
  • Nov 22, 1569

    The Earls reach Bramham Moor

    Their army is made up of 3800 foot soldiers and 1600 horsemen. All the territory east of the Pennines is under this control
  • Nov 24, 1569

    The rebels turn back to Knaresborough

  • Nov 30, 1569

    The rebels retreat to Richmond

    One contingent captures Hartlepool, hoping a Spanish army might land there to support them, while the main body besieges Barnard Castle
  • Dec 14, 1569

    Barnard Castle surrenders to the Earls

    By this time, Philip had authroised Alva to send financial aid (although changed his mind before it got through)
  • Dec 16, 1569

    The Royal army reaches the River Tees. Earls flee to Hexham

  • Dec 19, 1569

    Skirmish between the scouts of the Royal Army and rebel army. Earls flee into Scotland

  • Dec 22, 1569

    Execution of rebels

    (From end of Dec to Jan 1570)
    Elizabeth ordered execution of 700 but due to bad weather and officials' reluctance, actual figure executed nearer 450. Earl of Westmorland escapes abroad. Northumberland is betrayed by a Scottish clan and after being imprisoned and interrogated, is beheaded at York in 1572.
    Why it failed: lack of foreign support (no excommunication at time and Spain uninterested), rebel actions and support for Elizabeth strong.
  • Jan 23, 1570

    Moray is murdered - Elizabeth sent forces to Scotland to subdue Mary's supporters

    (Elizabeth had 1570-71 and early 1580s urged the Scots to restore Mary to nominal sovereignity. However, the Scottish regents, and later James VI, put obstacles in the way of Mary's return)
  • Apr 27, 1570

    Pope Pius V issues Papal Bull, excommunicating Elizabeth and calling on all loyal Catholics to depose her.

    This meant that Catholics didn't have to follow her rule anymore
  • May 29, 1570

    Prophesyings started

    (date and month random - 1570s)
    Meetings where prayers and sermons were said. Originally used to improve the standards of the clergy, and were popular as a means of raising the level of clerical education. By the 1570s, were being used by Puritans to put forward their views - potentially dangerous - could encourage unrest and even rebellion.
    Edmund Grindal appointed Archbishop of Canterbury 1576. Refused to suppress them, and was suspended from duty until his death in 1583
  • May 30, 1570

    Pursued marriage alliance with the Duke of Anjou

    (date and month random)
    (Elizabeth did nothing to prevent English seamen from attacking Spanish ships.)
  • May 30, 1570

    By 1570, over 2000 poor people in Norwich

    (date random)
    Norwich and Ipswich had been centres of the cloth trade in the 1550s - badly hit by collapse
  • Aug 8, 1570

    John Felton executed for displaying a copy of the Papal Bull

  • Jan 15, 1571

    Ridolfi Plot

    (date random)
    Following Elizabeth's excommunication, an uprising was planned to replace Elizabeth with Mary, who would be married to the Due of Norfolk. Conspiracy involved Mary, Philip II (meaning the Spanish were supporting the Catholics), the Pope, the Duke of Norfolk and other English noblemen. The plan was soon discovered by Cecil.
  • Apr 7, 1571

    Walter Strickland introduced a brill to reform the Book of Common Prayer

    Wanted to removing those practices that were regarded as Catholic.
    Strickland was prevented from attending the Commons by the Privy Council,
    Elizabeth accused some MPs of interfering in her private matters of state.
  • May 29, 1571

    Three Acts passed by the end of the Parliament session

    It is treasonable to declare that Elizabeth is not Queen
    It is treasonable to introduce or publish any Papal Bulls
    All those who have fled abroad and who fail to return within 12 months are to forfeit their property
  • Nov 30, 1571

    Series of bills were introduced on rites and ceremonies to remove many practices from the Prayer Book

    (date and month random - 1571-2)
    Church authorities began to be stricter with Puritan ministers, suspending some and cancelling the licences of others
  • Mar 30, 1572

    Expulsion of Dutch Sea Beggars

    The Dutch Protestant privateers had been sheltering in English ports, and as she wanted to improve Anglo-Spanish relations, she expelled them.
    On the way back to Netherlands, the rebels captured the Port of Brill and the Revolt of the Netherlands began.
    Next 3 years - English public opinion and Leicester and Walsingham called for Liz to send aid to rebels to prevent Spanish conquest and and centralisation of the Netherlands. Liz refused to send aid officially so not to anatagonise Spain.
  • Apr 19, 1572

    Treaty of Blois

    France and England promised to aid the other if asked.
    Elizabeth wanted to isolate Spain, and would prevent France from invading Flanders
  • May 8, 1572

    Parliament opened

    After Ridolfi plot:
    Council pushed for the execution of Mary Queen of Scots. A campaign to exclude Mary from the English throne was led by two councillors, Knollys and Croft.
    At Parliament, Liz agreed to execution of Duke of Norfolk, but refused Mary Q of S execution, although considered removal from succession, and prorouged Parliament on 30th June.
  • May 29, 1572

    Bill introduced on rites and ceremonies to remove many practices from the Prayer Book

    (date and month random)
    Parliament that year started 8th May to 30th June
    The Queen intervened after the second reading to prevent Parliament from discussing religious matters further unless given permission by her bishops.
  • May 30, 1572

    Sir Humphrey Gilbert leads volunteer force in Netherlands

    (date and month random)
    Elizabeth didn't support rebels officially but did send a volunteer force under Humphrey Gilbert to prevent Flushing from falling into French hands; but was careful to maintain good relations with the French court even after the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre 1574.
  • May 30, 1572

    Drake's expedition to Panama netted £40000 worth of Spanish silver

    (date and month random)
  • Jun 29, 1572

    Admonition to Parliament

    (date random)
    John Field - a biting attack on the Church, which criticised its structure and doctrine for their continuing links with Catholic practices. The Second admonition to Parliament was published later that year
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    Thousand's of Protestant's massacred in Paris on holy day. French relations of Mary Q of S involved in killings. Elizabeth very wary.
  • Sep 1, 1572

    4th War of Religion in France

    (date and month not exact)
    St Bartholomew's Day Massacre triggers the 4th War of Religion. Elizabeth permites the Huguenots to use England as a base and authorises English Protestants to send munitions and a loan to the Huguenots.
  • May 30, 1573

    Convention of Nymegen

    (date and month random)
    Philip II and Elizabeth I had agreed to settle their differences by the end of 1572, and in the Convention of Nymegen, trade links was restored.
  • May 30, 1573

    Walsingham made Provy Councillor

    (date and month random)
  • May 30, 1573

    Elizabeth and the Netherlands

    (Date and month random)
    Elizabeth continues to aid the Dutch rebels unofficially, sending money and volunteers and allowing English privateers to close the Channel to Spanish ships. This policy has some success: it is indirect enough not to cause conflict with Spain but irritating enough to cause Spain to make concessions.
  • May 29, 1574

    The first Seminary Priests arrive from Douai and establish contact with Catholic families (recusants) oin England

    (date and month random)
  • May 30, 1574

    Treaty/Convention of Bristol

    (date and month random)
    Elizabeth withdrew her support for English pirates in the Caribbean as a result of the treaty. It settles the bullion dispute, banishes English rebels from the Netherlands and allows English merchants in the Netherlands to practice their Protestant beliefs. Spain rejects any discussion over its government of the Netherlands, although Alva is replaced by the more moderate de Requesens
  • May 30, 1575

    Ending of Revolt of the Netherlands

    (date and month random)
    Duke of Alva crushed Revolt of the Netherlands easily
  • Feb 8, 1576

    Parliament opened

    MPs agreed to taxes.
    Closed Parliament 15th March.
  • Mar 15, 1576

    Peter Wentworth led a Puritan attack on clerical abuses

    (Parliament session 8th Feb to 15th March)
    Wentworth was sent to the Tower for 1 month.
  • Jun 29, 1576

    Martin Frobisher appointed to Captain to find the NW Passage

    Sir Humphrey Gilbert had argued that a north-west passage must exist in 1566, and so Frobisher was made Captain of a fleet to find it but it was fruitless - came back with black stone and an Inuit. This was only a small part of English maritime enterprise.
  • Nov 4, 1576

    The Spanish Fury

    A mutiny of the Spanish army which culminates in the sack of Antwerp on 4th Nov 1576.
    Unites all 17 Dutch provinces in open rebellion against Spanish rule.
  • Nov 8, 1576

    Pacification of Ghent

    The Dutch Estates-General calls for the explusion of all foreign troops and the restoration of their traditional liberties.
    Elizabeth laons the Dutch Estates-General £100000 and agrees to send an expeditionary force to the Netherlands. She also warns Henry III of France that if France intervenes she will use the forces against France.
  • Feb 27, 1577

    Perpetual Edict

    (date random)
    Don Juan of Austria (appointed by Philip II) agreed to the terms of the Pacification of the Ghent.
    However, Don Juan arrives at the year of the with a new Spanish army and begins the reconquest of the Netherlands. Thousands of English volunteers go to the Netherlands.
    Elizabeth warned Philip that he must accept the Pacification of the Ghent and recall Don Juan but he does neither.
    She opts to finance a mercernary force under John Casimir.
  • May 30, 1577

    Drake starts his circumnavigation around the world

    (date and month random)
    It took him 3 years to do. Elizabeth gave him secret instructions (even secret to Cecil) to attack the Spanish empire. Financed by a powerful court syndicate.
    Captured the Cacafuego carrying £140000 worth of treasure.
    In total estimated £400000 worth of treasure captured during attacks on the South American coast. He also signed a trade treaty with the Sultan of Ternate. These adventures elicited vigorous formal protests from Spain.
  • Nov 29, 1577

    Cuthbert Mayne is executed (Seminary Priest at Launceston in Cornwall)

  • May 29, 1578

    Just before the second of Fitzgerald's rebellions, Pope Gregory XIII (elected 1572) backs an expedition under Sir Stukeley to aid Fitzgerald

  • May 30, 1578

    Duke of Alencon signs an alliance with the Estates-General and William of Orange, intervening with the Netherlands

    (date and month irrelevant)
  • May 30, 1578

    James VI becomes King in his own right

    (date and month irrelevant)
    However, he comes under the influence of an agent of the Guise family, Esme Stuart, later the Earl of Lennox. A plot to invade England is drawn up by Stuart but uncovered by Walsingham
  • May 30, 1578

    Hatton made Privy Councillor

    (date and month random)
  • May 30, 1578

    Faction rivalry - Cecil and Leicester

    (date and month random)
    The question to send support to the rebels in the Netherlands divided the council for seven years. Leicester and Walsingham urged intervention against Cecil's discouragement, as a personal contest for political power deepened with genuine policy divisions. These differences divided the Privy Council, with Leicester gaining most support. Elizabeth played for time as long as possible and only agreed to send troops in 1585, when Spanish conquest of Netherlands inevitable.
  • May 30, 1579

    The Eastland Company established

    (date and month random)
    Established to import goods, mostly naval supplies, from the Baltic. Cloth made up to 75% of England's exports to the Baltic.
  • May 30, 1579

    Factional rivalries Cecil and Leicester

    Negotiations were held for the marriage between Elizabeth and Alencon. There were political advantages to gain from the marriage, such as influence over French policy in the Netherlands, but Alencon was Catholic. While Cecil declared it better than no marriage at all, Leicester whipped up public opinion against the marriage.
  • May 30, 1579

    The Duke of Parma makes considerable headway in the Netherlands

    (date and month random)
    Alencon withdraws forces.
    The southern Netherlands makes peace with Parma
    Against the wishes of her council. Elizabeth moves cautiously. She works to keep Alencon's Dutch campaigns within acceptable limits by resuming her courtship. This buys England time for Hawkins to build up the nacy, but Alencon is an erratic individual. Elizabeth can still not bring herself to openly intervene against Spain.
  • Apr 29, 1580

    First Jesuits in England

    (date irrelevant)
    Robert Parsons, Edmund Campion and Ralph Emerson arrive in England. Parsons and Campion spearhead a mission to Catholic families.
  • May 29, 1580

    Start of Classical Presbyterianism - secret groups of local clergy that discussed scriptures and common problems

    (date and month random)
    Network of groups, coordinated by John Field's London group - in touch with international groups. Aimed to reorganise Church to Calvinism. Challenged Liz's belief of Church and state government being ruled by the monarch.
    Whitgift replaced Grindal and laid down regulations to improve clerical standards and uniformity. High Commission - 24 questions to determine clergy's alliance to ERS. 300-400 ministers removed from office - Whitgift's methods challenged by council.
  • May 30, 1580

    Philip II gains Portugal

    (date and month random)
    He had united two wealthiest oceanic empires which gave him a navy which comes close to matching England's in size.
    Elizabeth sent Alencon £100000 to help him revive his campaign in the Netherlands.
  • Jan 16, 1581

    Parliament Opened

    MPs approved taxes to pay for an army Elizabeth had sent to Ireland. They passed new laws to punish Catholics. Then Parliament closed 18th March
  • Mar 18, 1581

    Parliament passes two severe Acts against Catholics, despite Queen's intervention to modify penalties

    (end of Parliament session which began on 16th Jan)
    Recusancy fines are increased to £20 and higher fines are imposed for hearing or saying Mass
    Attempting to convert people to the Catholic faith is now a treasonable offence
  • May 29, 1581

    Creation of the Brownists under Robert Browne and Robert Harrison

    (date and month random)
    After a spell of imprisonment for setting up Separatist organisations in Norwich, Browne wrote 'Treatise of Reformation without tarrying for any' in 1582 in Netherlands. Christians should set about reformation without waiting for the permission or guidance of anyone in authority. C of E corrupt and riddled with papist superstitution that the true Christian must shun it at all costs.
    To distribute Browne or Harrison works became executable offence.
  • Dec 1, 1581

    Edmund Campion and two other Douai Seminary Priests were executed

  • Philip orders the construction of a large navy

    (date and month random)
    In the same year Alencon withdraws from the Netherlands (he dies 12 months later).
  • Elias Thacker hung for distributing Browne and Harrison's works

  • Sir Humphrey Gilbert took possession of Newfoundland for the English Crown

    He never returned to England due to storms
  • Three Articles of 1583

    (Whitgift was appointed August) - to deal with Classical Presbyterianism
    First - accept Royal Supremacy
    Second - agree that Book of Common Prayer and Ordinal contained nothing contrary to the Word of God.
    Third - acknowledge 39 Articles were similarly agreeable to the Word of God.
    Would accept nothing but complete and unreserved subscription.
    Ex Officio oath - clergy under suspicion were forced to take an oath that they would answer all questions truthfully but not told beforehand the ques.
  • Throckmorton Plot

    (date random)
    Plans were laid for French Catholic forces, backed by Spanish Papal money, to invade England, liberate Mary and start a Catholic uprising. Throckmorton was the intermediary between Mary and the Spanish Ambassador, de Mendoza. The plot also involved some Jesuit and seminary priests, including William Allen
  • Browne returned to England and became submitted to Whitgift

    (date and month random)
    Ordained to C of E church 7 years later
  • Elizabeth and Philip edging closer to war

    (date and month random)
    Following the Throckmorton plot, Elizabeth expels the Spanish ambassador, de Mendoza, from England.
    The death of the Duke of Anjou (Alencon) means the next heir to the throne is the Protestant Henry of Navarre. To prevent a Protestant from gaining the throne, leading French Catholics, such as the Guise, form the Catholic League and call upon Philip II for help. In the secret Treaty of Joinville, Philip promises the Catholic League for his protection and support.
  • First attempts by Raleigh to colonise Virginia

    (date and month random)
    Virginia thought to be an ideal place for a colony, because people believed it had an inexhaustible supply of wine, oil, sugar, and flax, which might reduce England's dependence on Europe.
    He called it Virginia, in honour of Elizabeth
    In 1584, Raleigh obtained a royal patent to establish a colony on Roanoake Island off the coast of North Carolina. Credited with introducing tobacco in England in 1586. Colonists didn't prosper.
  • Murder of William of Orange

    Leading Protestant rule shot dead by a Catholic. Encouraged MPs to pass the Bond of Association.
    Inevitably allowed Spanish control of the Netherlands
  • Parliament Opened

    Following Throckmorton, MPs agreed to punish anyone who benefitted from Elizabeth's death. They passed a law to punish Catholic priests and granted taxes. Puritan MPs demanded changes in the Church, before they granted taxes, She ordered her MPs to stop talking about religion, but asked her bishops to carry out checks on the clergy, An Act for the Queen's Safety passed, and Elizabeth stopped Cecil to make the Bond of Association statute law. Protected rights of James VI. Closed 29th March 1585.
  • Peter Turner proposed a bill to change the government of the Church to Calvin's Genevan model

    The bill was lost from sight after a forceful speech against it in the Commons by Hatton
  • An act against the Jesuits and Seminary Priests passed

    (Parliament ended on this date)
    Any priest ordained by the Pope's authority is now guilty of treason once he sets foot in England. All priests are ordered to leave on pain of death. Anyone helping or harbouring a priest is liable to suffer death.
  • England pledges assistance to the Protestants in the Netherlands in their revolt against Spanish rule

  • Drake is sent to attack Spanish shipping in the New World

    (date and month random)
  • Treaty of Nonsuch

    Elizabeth agrees to send an army of over 7000 soldiers to help the rebels in the Netherlands. Leicester finally wins permission to lead the expedition, but his involvement is disatrous. Showing both arrogance and incompetence, he enrages the Queen by accepting te title of Governor-General, implying she aimed to replace Spanish sovereignity over the Netherlands. Despite the financial restrictions, he also wasted supplies and quarrelled with officers and the Estates-General.
  • Drake misses the Spnaish silver fleets and although sacks Santo Domingo and Cartagena the expedition loses £5000

    (date and month random)
  • English Army halt Parma's advances

    (date and month random)
    The English army plays a part in halting Parma's advances, preventing him from capturing Doesburg and the deep-water port of Flushing. Leicester is recalled to England.
    A series of harvest failures and a Dutch naval blockade 1586-90 cause famine in the Spanish Army. After 1589 many Spanish troops are diverted to France.
  • Babington Plot discovered

    A letter, allegedly dictated by Mary and endorsing Babington's plot to murder Elizabeth, was intercepted by Walsingham's agents. (was in a beer barrel).
    Ordered Babington and his conspirators to be hung, drawn and quartered.
  • Mary Queen of Scots put on trial at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire

    Found Mary guilty of 'imagining and encompassing her Majesty's death'.
    Elizabeth remained in London throughout trial. Twice postponed the next meeting of the House of Commons.
  • Parliament Opened

    War with Spain and Babington plot. MPs granted taxes for war. MPs demanded Mary Queen of Scots execution. Anthony Cope's campaign. Peter Wentworth supported his right to speak. Job Throckmorton, Puritan, spoke for a war against France and asked Elizabeth to become Queen of the Netherlands. Imprisoned Cope, Wentworth and Throckmorton and three other MPs for interfering.
  • Mary Queen of Scots is executed

    Elizabeth sent Hatton to see if there were other ways. Adjourned Parliament for 2 months. Spain and Scotland pleaded for her life.
    Davison signed death of warrant (on Cecil and Walsingham) - without Elizabeth's permission - he was thrown in to the Tower of London but released 19 months later after Cecil and Walsingham jumped in on his behalf.
    Cecil was banished and she harangued the council.
  • Anthony Cope's Bill and Book campaign

    The bill was denied a reading. The Queen ordered Cope's imprisonment. The Council prevented MPs from discussing the bill further
  • Peter Wentworth argued that MPs should have the right to discuss religious matters in Parliament

    He was sent to prison
  • Recusants who default payment of fines can now have 2/3's of their land seized by the Exchequer

  • Singeing the King of Spain's beard

    Drake sails into Cadiz harbour on 19th April and after a small battle, leave on 1st Mary, sinking 30 Spanish vessels and delaying the preparations for the Armada.
  • Drake captures San Felipe (Portugese ship)

    After the attack of Cadiz, he moved onto the Azores, and he returned home after the sacking of the San Felipe with £140000
  • The Spanish launch their Armada

    (date incorrect, although was late July)
  • The Spanish Armada

    130 Spanish ships carrying 17000 men sail up the Channel to rendez-vous with the Spanish army, under Parma, in the Netherlands. The Armada is met by the English navy, which is only just numerically superior but has quicker ships and longer-range guns. The Armada sails in tight formation down the Channel and anchors off Calais. During the night, the English use fireships to scatter the Spanish fleet and defeats it the next day at the Battle of Gravelines. Less than half return to Spain.
  • Martin Marprelate tracts

    (date random)
    Outrageous, satirical and bitter attack on the hierarchy of the church.
    Puritans suffered greatest damage - presented unsavoury image of the write - puritans were violent, sarcastic, offensive, hot headed, foul mouthed and destructive.
    Writer could have been seen as seditious traitor - Spanish Armada
  • Government's determination to crush Catholicism results in the execution of 31 priests

    (date and month random)
  • Parliament opened

    MPs approved taxes to pay for the cost of defeating the Spanish Armada. Some MPs complained about purveyances - right to buy supplies for army at much lower rate than inflation. Elizabeth said that this was not MPs business but she would look intom their complaints. Closed Parliament 29th March.
  • The counter naval attack (English Armada)

    (not sure when)
    Drake leads a naval counter attack but there are arguments over resources and objectives from the outset. Elizabeth wants to him destroy the remnants of the Armada. Drake wants to help Don Antonio of Portugal regain his throne from Philip II. Drake disobeys orders and, with Essex, attempts an ineffective attack on Lisbon. The expedition is a financial and psychological failure.
  • Henry III murdered

    Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV of France. He appeals to England for help against the Spanish-backed Catholic League (France in civil war again). Philip diverts force from Netherlands and Elizabeth commites herself to keeping the Spanish out of France. She sends Henry IV £20000 loan and 4000 men under Willoughby. Parma's army arrives in Paris and a second in Brittany, threatening England's channel defences further.
  • By the end of the 1580s, Puritanism had lost some of its most important patrons

    John Field
    Bancroft's sermon at Paul's Cross - explicitly linked Puritans were Separatists
    Thomas Cartwright arrested
  • Maurice of Nassau scores impressive military victories over Spain

    (date and month random)
    He was the Dutch Captain-General and was helped by 8000 English soldiers and large amounts of English money.
  • A force under Sir John Norris is sent to Brittany

    (date and month random)
  • Robert Cecil appointed to Privy Council

    (date and month random)
  • William Hacket executed

    Extremist Puritans had named him as the new Messiah, and followed this up with another deposing the Queen
  • Capture of Madre de Dios

    (until 13th August)
    Bullion ship in the East Indies - return of £80000 on Elizabeth's initial outlay of £3000
  • Levant Company established

    (date and month random)
    The ocmpanies trading with Venice and the Ottoman Empire amalgamated to form the Levant Company, which mainly traded English cloth for raw silk, but also exported some lead and tin and imported carpets.
  • Norris' force defeated by Spanish at Craon, weakened by sickness and desertion

    (date and month random)
  • Parliament opened

    MPs approved taxes to pay for the war against Spain and passed a law to punish Catholics. Peter Wentworth wanted Elizabeth to name her successor. Elizabeth imprisoned Wentworth then closed Parliament 10th April
  • James Morrice introduced 2 bills to abolish oaths and subscriptions, unlawful imprisonment and restraint liberty

    Morrice was suspended from office and imprisoned
  • Henry Barrow and John Greenwood, London Separtists, executed

  • The Act against Recusants

    (end of Parliament session that began on 19th Feb 1593)
    The House of Commons passes legislation making large gatherings of Catholics illegal, and confining Catholics to a radius of five miles (8km) from their homes to stop recusants moving about to avoid fines and imprisonment.
  • Bill against the 'seditious sectaries'

    (date and month irrelevant)
    'An Act to retain the Queen's subjects in obedience'. Either conform or leave the country for good. Death penalty for those who worshipped as Separatists.
    Richard Hooker's 'Of the Laws of the Eccesiastical Polity' - defended Church - value of tradition and continuity - development could be traced from medieval period and beyond. (meant Roman Catholic church part of True Church - disturbing for some). Prime importance of Eucharist in worship - leads to salvation
  • Henry IV converts to Catholicism

    (date and month random)
  • Essex made Privy Councillor

    (date and month random)
  • 'A Conference about the next succession'

    (date and month irrelevant)
    Robert Parsons publishes a document supporting the claim of the Spanish Infanta to the English throne
  • The start of the Archpriest Controversy

    (date and month random)
    The Pope appoints George Blackwell as Archpriest to rule the English Catholic community. Blackwell is ordered to consult with the Jesuits. This convinces the government that it cannot be tolerant even of those priests who promised political loyalty. Breakdown of catholic threat.
  • The government refuses to follow a policy of toleration towards English secular Catholics who promise not to rebel against Elizabeth

    (date and month random)
  • The Netherlands

    (date and month random)
    Northern - secured under Dutch control
    Southern - Spainish control, acting as a buffer against French expansion
  • The Spaniards attempt to capture Brest

    (date and month random)
    Elizabeth sends an expedition of 8 warships and 4000 men to push the Spanish out of France
  • Joint attack on West Indies Treasure fleet

    (date and month random)
    Launched by Hawkins and Drakw. Hawkins dies at sea and Drake is defeated by Spain's new defensive measures in Panama. He dies of dysntery at Porto Bello
  • Lambeth Articles

    (date irrelevant)
    Hooker largely ignored Calvinism in his work.
    Row in Cambridge Uni when one of the University Chaplains, William Barrett, attacked Calvinism and Calvin himself. Lambeth Articles which restated the centrality of Calvinist theories of salvation to the doctrine of C of E. Queen refused to grant these articles official backing on frounds that Whitgift had been so rash as to pronounce on true doctrine without consulting the Supreme Governor.
  • Sack of Cadiz

    (until 15th July)
    A huge expedition is launched against Spain. 17 naval ships and 47 war ships, led by Essex, Charles Howard and Walter Raleigh, sack Cadiz and capture a Spanish treasure ship, costing Philip 12 million ducats.
    Subsqeuent Spanish Armadas are scattered by storms (1596-8)
  • Bad harvests 1596 and 1597

    (date and month random - summer)
    Series of bad harvests - agricultural prices climbed to unprecedented levels, but real wages slumped to their lowest levels since before the Black death 1348-9. Widespread subsistence crisis with substantial evidence of deaths from starvation in the far north of England.
  • Oxfordshire 'rising'

    (date random)
    Four men had been angry about their experience of poverty, but weren't really planning conspiracy.
    Authorities had execessive (and paranoid?) response to the rising. Tortured participants in order to find evidence of a non-existent conspiracy, badgered Lord Norris to make more arrests and then had the four rebels executed for treason. Worried vagrancy out of control and rebellions would come about in style of Kett's.
    People seem to have remained passive in adversity.
  • Act for the Relief of the Poor

    (date and month random)
    A series of laws were passed to create a new, nationwide, compulsory system of poor relief.
    (1552, 1563, 1572 and 1576)
  • Substantial outbreak of plague 1597-8

    (date and month random)
  • Parliament Opened

    MPs agreed to taxes.They passed laws to punish beggars and to help the poor. Some MPs complained about monopolies - Elizabeth said she would look into complaints. Closed Parliametnt 9th Feb 1598
  • Henry IV and Philip agree peace

    (date random)
    England has an ally on the Frnehc throne, who might act as a check on Spanish power in the future.
  • Essex bursts into Queen's bedchamber

    He was charged in the Star Chamber, was suspended not only from the Privy Council but also from his offices as Earl Marshal and Master of the Ordnance, and kept under house arrest.
    His conduct had become more reckless and smacked of treason. Elizabeth was upset by his dedication to John Hayward's 'The First Part of the Life and Reign of King Henry IV' which was mainly concerned with the overthrow and assassination of Richard II, who had alienated nobility, abused patronage & overtaxed commoners
  • Essex has charge of treason laid against him

    (not sure when - between bursting in bedchamber and rebellion)
    Charges absurd: Essex had conspired with the Pope and the King of Spain to secure the Crown, he had agreed to restore the Netherlands to Spain and to defend Spanish interests in the New World. Position exposed, although charges not pressed.
    Desperate financial situation - Liz had removed his monopoly on sweet wines, without means to raise credit. In debt to sum of £16000 and his followers denied access to advancement.
  • East India Comapny established under John Newberry and Ralph Fitch

    (date and month random)
    Had travelled in 1583 to India but only granted Royal Charter in 1600.
    Despite the establishment of new trade routes, 74% of all imports still ccame from the Netherlands, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. English Maritime enterprise was more concerned with illegal trade in the New Wrold than with legal trade in the East.
  • Population had grown from 50000 in 1500 to 200000 in 1600

    (date and month random)
  • Essex's supporters put on the play Richard II by Shakespeare - rumours of rebellion

    (date random)
  • Essex summoned to appear before the Privy Council but he refused!

  • Elizabeth sent 4 PC's to Essex's London home but he arrested them and locked them up

    He went to rouse the people of London. No one supported him but he marched to the Queen's palace at Whitehall. The Privy Council declared Essex a traitor and anyone who deserted would be pardoned. Some surrendered. Essex decided to go back to his London home to make a deal with the Queen over is his hostages. However, PC had already sent soldiers to block his way. After some fighting Essex returned home by the river to find soldiers had released the PCs. Rebellion lasted 12 hours.
  • Essex executed

  • Act for the Relief of the Poor

    (date and month random) Lasted through to 19th century.
    The impotent poor were to be cared for in almshouse or a poorhouse. The law offered relief to people who were unable to work: mainly those who were "lame, impotent, old, blind"
    The able-bodied poor were to be set to work in a House of Industry. Materials were to be provided for the poor to be set to work
    The idle poor and vagrants were to be sent to a House of Correction or even prison.
    Pauper children would become apprentices
  • Parliament opened

    MPs approved taxes to pay for the war against Spain and the cost of sending an army to Ireland. MPs complained about monopolies again. Some said that they should not grant taxes until monopolies were cancelled. The Queen agreed to cancel some monopolies, suspend others, and to thoroughly investigate the situation. She preserved her prerogative and subsidies by conceding to Parliament's demands. She made a long 'Golden Speech' to flatter MPs. Closed 19th Dec.
  • Royal Proclamation orders all Jesuits to leave the country within 30 days

    (date estimate - between 12-16th)
    Other priests are given 12 months to leave, but are promised favourable treatment if they submit to the authorities, which thirteen do.
  • Death of Elizabeth I

    All English people were broadly loyal to the crown. There had been no direct challenge to Elizabeth since 1569. 'Political nation' intensely loyal (apart from perhaps the followers of the Earl of Essex). Queen had argubale reigned too long and seemed out of touch with the aspirations of a younger generation. Queen's reputation tarnished by events of the last years of her reign - rivalries at Court, monopolies and fears about the breakdown of law and order during the subsistence crisis 1596-8.
  • Death of Elizabeth I

    Religious situation was favourable. English Catholics were fundamentally divided between a majority who tried to accommodate conflicting loyalties to Crown and faith and a minority who identified wholeheartedly with the bull of excommunication and who sought a Catholic succession. Puritainism as dynamic movement faded and assimilated in the Anglican mainstream. Separatism disappeared. Religious unity.
  • Death of Elizabeth I

    Elizabeth and Cecil had resisted institutional change. The mechanismss for the raising of revenue had become seriously outdated and failed to keep pace with inflation. Crown's financial position - made worse by almost 20 years of warfare - was weak in 1603, and a high price had been paid for eventual military sucess in Ireland. Church had been institutionally weakened by the financial demands imposed on it. While broadly stable, James would face some problems