Ernest Nagel, (Nov. 16, 1901-Sept. 20, 1985)He abandoned a realistic ontology for an empirical and theoretical philosophy of science. His book An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method, illustrates the function of logical principles in scientific method in the natural, social sciences, law and history. In Logic Without Metaphysics he defended a naturalistic interpretation of logic, denying the ontological necessity of logico-mathematical principles.
Britannica. Nov 12, 2021. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Ernest-Nagel
Imre Lakatos (November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974)Major Works
1968 The Problem of Inductive Logic.
1970 Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge.
1973 Science and Pseudoscience.
1974 Popper on Demarcation and Induction.
1976 Proofs and Refutations.
1977 The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes.
1978 Mathematics, Science and Epistemology: Philosophical Papers Volume 2
1999 For and Against Method.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Mon Apr 26, 2021. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/lakatos/
Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000).He defined reality of the world and how humans fit into that reality. "A systematic attempt to answer, as an empiricistic. 'How do we acquire our theory of the world?' '' He says nothing that humans know about the world lies outside the realm of language, so any theory of knowledge depends on a theory of language.
The New York Times. Dec. 29, 2000.
Alan Chalmers (1939-Present)The theme that fascinates him, the precise ways in which evidence provides confirmation for physical theories. The atomic theory is ideal for a topic. It was defended in the Classical world by Democritus and Epicurus in Greece and Lucretius in Rome; and during the Renaissance atomism, but how does one turn an interesting metaphysical speculation about matter into a well-confirmed theory?
The center for Philosophy of Science. © 2021. https://www.centerphilsci.pitt.edu/fellows/chalmers-alan/
Nancy Cartwright (June 24, 1944-Present)Works
2017 Improving Child Safety: deliberation, judgement and empirical research
2018 Are laws of nature consistent with contingency?
2018 Will Your Policy Work? Experiments versus Models
2018 Theoretical Practices That Work: Those That Mimic Nature’s Own
2018 Meeting Our Standards for Educational Justice: Doing Our Best with the Evidence
2017 What’s so special about empirical adequacy?
Nancy Cartwright FBA FAcSS. © 2021. https://www.profnancycartwright.com/
Donna Haraway (September 6, 1944-Present)Haraway is widely cited in works related to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Her Situated Knowledges and Cyborg Manifesto publications in particular, have sparked discussion within the HCI community regarding framing the positionality from which research and systems are designed. She is also a leading scholar in contemporary ecofeminism, associated with post-humanism and new materialism movements.
Wikipedia. October 2021. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donna_Haraway
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922–1996)In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) periods of normal science and revolutionary science are clearly distinguished. In particular paradigms and their theories are not questioned and not changed in normal science whereas they are questioned and are changed in revolutionary science. Thus a revolution is, by definition revisionary, and normal science is not.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Wed Oct 31, 2018. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/thomas-kuhn/
Paul Feyerabend (1924-1994)He expounded his own perspective on scientific method. In 1970, he published a long article entitled “Against Method.” He and Lakatos planned a debate volume, to be entitled "For and Against Method," where Lakatos would put forward the “rationalist” case that there was an identifiable set of rules of scientific method which make all good science science, and Feyerabend would attack it. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Aug 24, 2020. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feyerabend/
David Bloor (JAN 1, 1942-Present)Bloor authored and published "Knowledge and Social Imagery (1st edition) in 1976. His work focused on scientific knowledge and its relation to sociology.
In 1983, Bloor published "Wittgenstein: A Social Theory of Knowledge." (https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-349-17273-3) presenting an exposition of Wittgenstein's work in regards to society vs. the individual.
Hilary W. Putnam (1926-Present)Putnam has written extensively on issues in metaphysics and epistemology, philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of physics. philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind, and on the American Pragmatists and the later Wittgenstein. He has also published two books on the relations between “facts” and “values.” Retired at the end of June 2000.
Harvard University. Copyright © 2021. https://philosophy.fas.harvard.edu/people/hilary-putnam