Drug History in U.S.A.

  • Mighty Destroyer Displayed

    Mighty Destroyer Displayed
    Anthony Benezet publishes the first American essay on alcoholism.
  • Dangers of Alcohol

    Dangers of Alcohol
    Dr. Benjamin Rush publishes a book that speaks of the dangers of constant drunkeness and claims it should be treated as a medical issue.
  • Sober House

    Sober House
    Dr. Benjamin Rush calls for the creation of a sober house for "confirmed drunkards."
  • First Drug Law

    First Drug Law
    Massachusetts forbids the sale of alcohol to Native Americans.
  • Period: to

    Prohibition Movement

    First prohibition movement. In this time 13 states pass prohibition laws, but by 1868 9 appeal them.
  • The American Association for the Cure of Inebriety

    The American Association for the Cure of Inebriety
    The American Association for the Cure of Inebriety is founded, with the idea that it is a disease.
  • Opium Dens Banned in San Francisco

    Opium Dens Banned in San Francisco
    Follows a pattern of early laws aimed at drug users rather then the drug itself. Opium dens are outlawed, but opium is not.
  • Cocaine Treatment

    Cocaine Treatment
    Sigmun Freud and other notable physicians say cocaine can treat alcoholism.
  • Keeley Institute Founded

    Keeley Institute Founded
    Founded under the principal that "The Law Must Recognize a Leading Fact: Medical Not Penal Treatment Reforms the Drunkard."
  • Asylums Close

    Asylums Close
    Houses close forcing drunkards to go to drunk tanks and jail.
  • Period: to

    2nd Prohibition Movement

    39 states pass prohibition laws and only 2 repeal them.
  • Period: to

    End of Inebriety Houses

    Most houses collapse in this time
  • Harrison Tax Act

    Harrison Tax Act
    Tax to monitor drugs. Not a prohibition.
  • Addiction is a Medical Issue

    Addiction is a Medical Issue
    In the Harrison Tax Act, addiction was viewed as a medical issue and not a criminal one. They did not feel it was a punishable behavior.
  • Cannibus Pamphlet

    Cannibus Pamphlet
    U.S. Department of Agriculture encourages farmers to grow cannibus as a profitable crop.
  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    Alcohol is prohibited
  • 1930 Incarceration Numbers

    1930 Incarceration Numbers
    About 100 of every 100,000 U.S. citizens are incarcerated.
  • 21st Amendment

    21st Amendment
    Prohibition repealed. Drinking had fallen, but organized crime had risen and there was a need for tax dollars.
  • Marijuana Menace

    Marijuana Menace
    Marijuana is seen as the "foremost menace to life, health and morals in America." All 48 states have laws regulating Marijuana sales, possesion and use,
  • AA Formed

    AA Formed
    Alcoholica Anonymous is formed
  • Feds Involved

    Feds Involved
    Federal government gets involved in addiction treatment and research,
  • Marijuana Tax Act

    Marijuana Tax Act
    Only placed a tax on marijuana, still legal. States then made the drug illegal. Use dropped dramatically.
  • More scientific involvement

    More scientific involvement
    The Research Council on Problems of Alcohol is published, bringing many prominent scientists into the field.
  • 1940 Incarceration Rate

    1940 Incarceration Rate
    About 120 of every 100,000 citizens are incarcerated.
  • Marty Mann

    Marty Mann
    Marty Mann founds the National Committee for Education on Alcoholism. Believes alcohol is a disease and major health problem.
  • 1950 Incarceration Rate

    1950 Incarceration Rate
    About 105 of every 100,000 citizens are incarcerated.
  • Alcoholism Defined

    Alcoholism Defined
    American Medical Association first defines alcoholism.
  • Alcoholism is a disease

    Alcoholism is a disease
    American Medical Association declares alcoholism is a disease.
  • AMA says alcoholism not a disease

    AMA says alcoholism not a disease
    AMA says alcoholism is not a disease, but alcoholics should be treated as patients. "Hospitals should be urged to consider admission of such patients with a diagnosis of alcoholism based upon the condition of the individual patient, rather than a general objection to all such patients."
  • Half Way Houses

    Half Way Houses
    Association of Halfway House Alcoholism Programs of North Americ founded.
  • 1960 Incarceration Rate

    1960 Incarceration Rate
    About 110 of every 100,000 citizens are incarcerated.
  • Period: to

    1960s

    Drug use soars and is seen as more socially acceptable.
  • Report on Addiction

    American Bar Association and AMA release report, Drug Addiction: Crime or Disease?
  • APHA says alcoholism is a disease

    APHA says alcoholism is a disease
    American Public Health Association declares alcoholism is a treatable disease,
  • Drug Abuse Control Amendments

    Drug Abuse Control Amendments
    First federal law outlawing drugs. Deemed LSD, amphetamines, and barbiturates as harmful drugs and allowed FDA to recommend to Departments of Education, Welfare, Health ways to control them.
  • Marijuana Tax Unconstitutional

    Marijuana Tax Unconstitutional
    Marijuana Tax Act is unconstitutional because in order to pay the tax one must declare they are a seller, incriminating themselves under state laws. This violated the 5th Amendment,
  • Controlled Substance Act of 1970

    Controlled Substance Act of 1970
    Placed control of all dangerous drugs under the federal government. Created the Drug Enforcement Agency to contorl them. First act that was not a tax.
  • 1970 Incarceration Rate

    1970 Incarceration Rate
    About 100 of every 100,000 citizens are incarcerated
  • Period: to

    Drug Abuse and Alcoholism the same?

    People start wondering if alcoholism and drug abuse treatments should be lumped together.
  • War on Drugs

    War on Drugs
    Richard Nixon declares a "War on Drugs."
  • Marijuana Misdemeanor

    Marijuana Misdemeanor
    Study commisioned by the Controlled Substance Act says Marijuana should be a misdemeanor.
  • Reward Pathway Research

    Reward Pathway Research
    Avram Goldstein claims that heroine works on the brains reward pathway. This leads the pateint to crave more and more of the drug, making them addicted.
  • 1980 Incarceration Rate

    1980 Incarceration Rate
    About 140 of every 100,000 citizens are incarceratred. (War on drugs has fully taken effect)
  • Drug Analogue Act

    Drug Analogue Act
    Worked to criminalize designer drugs. People previously tried to avoid persecution by chemically altering illegal drugs. This made those drugs illegal.
  • Period: to

    Crack Years

    Crack cocaine use spikes.
  • Anti-Drug Abuse Act

    Anti-Drug Abuse Act
    Penalties for trafficking drugs .
  • Reagan's Drug War

    Reagan's Drug War
    Ronald Reagan declares a new war on drugs, moving away from treatment and towards punishment,
  • SCOTUS, Alcoholism not disease

    SCOTUS, Alcoholism not disease
    US Supreme Court defines alcoholism as willful misconduct.
  • Diseasing of America: Addiction Treatment Out of Control

    Diseasing of America: Addiction Treatment Out of Control
    Diseasing of America: Addiction Treatment Out of Control is published with the sole purpose of opposing 12 step recovery programs.
  • 1990 Incarceration Rate

    1990 Incarceration Rate
    About 250 of every 100,000 citizens are incacerated. (Crack Years)
  • Attempt at Reform

    Attempt at Reform
    President Clinton includes treatment for addicts in his health care proposal.
  • 2000 Incarceration Rate

    2000 Incarceration Rate
    480 of every 100,000 citizens are incarcerated
  • Drug Deaths

    17,000 Americans die from illicit drug use
  • Call for Treatment

    Call for Treatment
    n the Journal of the American Medical Association, Drs. McLellan, Lewis, O'Brien, and Kleber call for addiction to be once again viewed as a mental illness.
  • New Recovery Advocacy Movement

    New Recovery Advocacy Movement
    New grassroots movement to treat addiction as a disease are dubbed the "New Recovery Advocacy Movement."
  • Obama's War

    Obama's War
    Obama's administration declares they want to end the use of the term "War on Drugs" and want to display it as harm prevention. Despite this the policies of the administration have not been much different then those of Bush.
  • 22,000,000 users

    22,000,000 users
    Study shows that 22,000,000 million people used illicit drugs. This represents 9% of the population.
  • 23,000,000 need Treatment

    23,000,000 million people needed treatment in 2010, but only 2.6 million people got it. Most people who did not get the treatment said they did not feel they needed it.
  • 2010 Incarceration Rate

    2010 Incarceration Rate
    About 500 of every 100,000 citizens are incarcerated.
  • Marijuana Legal

    Marijuana Legal
    Colorado and Washington state legalize marijuana.
  • Alcoholism

    Alcoholism
    Magnus Huss creates the term Alcoholism and describes it as a disease resulting from constant drinking.
  • Charles B. Towns Hospital for Drug and Alcoholic Addictions

    Charles B. Towns Hospital for Drug and Alcoholic Addictions
    Charles B. Towns Hospital for Drug and Alcoholic Addictions founded in NY to treat wealthy users