• 360 BCE

    Early impressions

    In 360 BC, Socrates claims that Deaf people are incapable of language and ideas, following Aristotle's claim in 355 BC that those who are born Deaf become senseless and incapable of reason (Adams, 2021).
  • Ancient stereotypes proved wrong

    In 1591, a German physician named Salomon Alberti established that hearing and speech were separate functions, and that Deaf people were capable of thought and rational, debunking ancient misconceptions with his literature (Guthrie, 1944).
  • First book of manual alphabetic sign

    Juan Pablo Bonet, an advocate of early sign language, writes the first well-known book of manual alphabetic sign for the Deaf (Padden, 2003).
  • Early hearing tools

    Early hearing tools
    F. C. Rein & Son Hearing Aid Manufacturer creates ear trumpets, listening tubes, and other acoustic thrones as technology for improved hearing (Valentinuzzi, 2020).
  • American School for the Deaf

    The first American School for the Deaf was founded in Hartford, Connecticut. At this time, it only had seven students. The two who founded this school were Laurent Clerc and Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (Fay, 1893).
  • NAD founded

    NAD founded
    The National Association of the Deaf was founded in 1890. This organization promotes the civil rights of deaf individuals in the United States. It defends the ability of the American deaf community to use sign language and organizes around important issues (Harvard, n.d.).
  • First portable and electric hearing aid developed

    First portable and electric hearing aid developed
    The first portable electric hearing aid was developed by Miller Reese Hutchison in 1898 (Miracle Ear, 2021).
  • Discrimination laws

    In 1937, President William Taft informed the NAD (National Association of the Deaf) that he instructed the Federal Civil Service Commission to remove all discriminatory barriers to federal employment of deaf workers.
  • Film captions

    A deaf actor, Emerson Romero, developed the first captioning of a film by putting captions between picture frames (Traynor, 2016). It was not until the late 1950's that more captioned films were available to audiences due to increased funding.
  • Language acquisition stages defined

    Roger Brown and his colleagues identify stages and ages of language acquisition in young hearing children, providing norms for typical development (Spencer, 2016).
  • ASL updates

    William Stokoe analyzed ASL (American Sign Language) and provided groundbreaking research establishing its use (Spencer, 2016).
  • First Cochlear Implant

    First Cochlear Implant
    The first Cochlear Implant (CI) was implanted by William House and John Doyle of Los Angeles, California, in 1961 (Mudry & Mills, 2013).
  • Sound and Sign: Childhood Deafness and Mental Health

    A book called Sound and Sign: Childhood Deafness and Mental Health is published, which describes development in those who are Deaf or hard of hearing. It helped to foster more positive attitudes and also increased the importance of early pre-language communicative experiences for social emotional development (Spencer, 2016).
  • US Education for All Handicapped Children Act

    US Education for All Handicapped Children Act was established in 1975. This provided rules and procedures to prevent the exclusion from public education of school-aged children with disabilities. It ensures that the school must provide services and programming (Spencer, 2016).
  • New study

    DeCasper and Fifer found that hearing babies will react differentially to and show recognition of their own mother’s voices quickly after birth (Spencer, 2016).
  • Approval for CI surgery

    The US Food and Drug Administration approved CI surgery for children between 2 and 17 years old (Spencer, 2016).
  • Americans with Disabilities Act passed

    Americans with Disabilities Act passed
    Previous discriminatory practices and obstacles to accessibility for the handicapped are outlawed. This law required increased communication, education, and employment opportunities for the deaf. Additionally, caption decoder chips are required in television sets larger than 13″ (The Sign Language Company, 2013). Link to video description: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuZadMDve-E
  • JCIH and US Center for Disease Control Update

    The JCIH (Joint Committee on Infant Hearing) and US Center for Disease Control recommend hearing loss should be identified by 3 months and intervention should occur by 6 months (Spencer, 2016).