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Culture and Currents of Thought

  • Nov 3, 1500

    Spirituality of First Occupants

    Spirituality of First Occupants
    The spirituality of the First Occupants consisted of shamanism which was a priest/medicine man, myths & legends and dream catchers. Dream catchers would catch the bad dreams and let the good ones pass through. The sunlight would burn the bad dreams. Spirituality of the First Occupants was a form of expression or cultural manifestation.
  • Nov 3, 1500

    Social Relationships of First Occupants

    Social Relationships of First Occupants
    Another form of expression or cultural manifestation of the First Occupants is social relationships. Social relationships revolved around the concepts of culture, identity, education and society. For example, respect for elders, traditions, freedom of actions for instance no written laws, no private property.
  • Nov 3, 1500

    Nature of First Occupants

    Nature of First Occupants
    Animism is the religion of the First Occupants. Animism was the thought that everything has a soul. Animals, plants, inanimate objects all had spirits. They respected and feared the spirits and avoided offending them in order to preserve balance and harmony in the Universe.
  • Nov 3, 1500

    Communication & Exchange of First Occupants

    Communication & Exchange of First Occupants
    Oral tradition was the way of passing on history and stories from generation to generation for the First Occupants. They could not write and they didn't have a written language. Song and dance, ceremonies were other ways of communication and exchange.
  • Catholicism

    Catholicism
    The church was extremely powerful. One would do what the church said or they would be excommunicated. The church controlled education, health and converted Amerindians. The Church played a political and economic role in the colony. The bishop was on the Sovereign Council and nearly a quarter of seigneurial domains belonged to religious orders.
  • Life in New France

    Life in New France
    Settlers had happy lives but they were hard. They had to do a lot of work for example, caring for the crops, making clothes, fixing tools, preparing for winter... The settlers became self-dependent because New France was not really developing.
  • First Bishop of Quebec

    First Bishop of Quebec
    Francois de Laval was the first bishop of Quebec. He was appointed by the King of France. The king had full authority of the Catholic Church in New France and in France. Gallicanism is the name of the doctrine that placed the King's authority above that of the Roman pope.
  • British Rule

    British Rule
    In 1760, after the conquest, the colony belonged to the British. They imposed their laws, language, culture and political institutions on its people. The Canadiens resisted having the British Values and culture forced on them because they were attached to the French and Catholic traditions. Loyalist, merchants and British immigrants came to the colony.
  • Liberalism

    Liberalism
    Liberalism is a philosophy, political or social, that promotes the ideas of freedom of the individual, parlimantary system of government, nonviolent modification of political, economic and social institutions to assure unrestricted development in all spheres of human attempts and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties. This current of thought was advertised in newspapers and architecture.
  • Independent Spirit and Adaptability of the Canadiens

    Independent Spirit and Adaptability of the Canadiens
    The inhabitants of the colony formed a society based on French traditions but including aspects of Aboriginal culture. Over time, the people acquired a distinct identity, they called themselves Canadiens. For example, young colonists enjoyed the freedom of Aboriginal ways (coureurs de bois). The Canadiens followed the Catholic religion - taken from the French traditions.
  • Ultramonitism

    Ultramonitism
    Ultramonitism is the policy that wants to enhance the power of the Church and the pope. The church wants to increase its authority in political, social, cultural institutions.
  • Anticlericalism

    Anticlericalism
    Anticlericalism was agaisnt the church's influence the State and Canadian society. They were criticized by the urch and received little support from the population.
  • Agriculturism

    Agriculturism
    Agriculturism is a push to support farmers and farming. Rural, community and parish life was spoken about in novels like Un Homme et son peche, Maria Chapdeleine, Le Survenant... Creation of community groups such as Le Cerle des Fermieres and spread of their ideas in a magazine.
  • Nationalisms

    Nationalisms
    Nationalism is one's devotion to their own nation and its interest over all other nations. When you support your country even though it is a colony of another country. Britain expected its colonies to do as it commanded but that wasn't always the case. French Canadian nationalism wanted to protect the french culture and language. English Canadian nationalism like the English way and supported Britain but wanted Canada to operate independently.
  • Imperialism

    Imperialism
    Imperialism is extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countires or of acquiring and holding colonies. When you are in favour of the mother country. British imperialist ideas were spread through newspapers. The Newspaper Le Devoir was created to protest agaisnt Imperialism.
  • Capitalism

    Capitalism
    Capitalism is an economic system in which investment in and ownership of the means of production, distribution and exchange of wealth is made and maintained by private individuals. Construction of building form part of our architectural heritage. Diffusion of capitalist ideas through private property and mainstream press owned by businessmen. Appearence of some literary works that depict economic disparities for example, Bonheur d'occasion.
  • Feminism 1

    Feminism 1
    Feminism is a movement to define, establish, and attain equal rights for women. Cultural, political, personal, social, economic rights... For example, equal rights in education, employment. Women should have the same job opportunities as men and get paid as much as the men. Women had hard lives, they had more usually more than 10 children, once done at the factories, they had to go home and cook and clean and take care of the famiy.
  • Feminism 2

    Feminism 2
    Women had no rights, they couldn't vote and they had little education. Their one escape was to become a nun. World War One opened up some doors for women. While the men were at war, the women gained the right to vote in the federal election. During the war, women also worked in the factories and as nurses. The church was to blame for taking part in the oppression of women and inqeualities with men. Feminist thoughts were presented by feminist magazines and feminist artists.
  • Americanism

    Americanism
    The American lifestyle had a great influence on the Canadian lifestyle. American trends emerged through music like jazz and rap, dance and American culture was spread through television, radio and films.
  • Fascism

    Fascism
    The thought that a dictator (one person) should control a whole country. Usually rule through force or propaganda. An example of fascism is Adolf Hitler. Fascism was also adopted in Spain and Italy. Fascism ideas were spread through newspapers just like Adrien Arcand who was a journalist and head of the Christian National Socialist Party spread his ideas in newspapers.
  • Neoliberalism

    Neoliberalism
    New wave of liberalism, wanting the government out of an area. Removal of state in various spheres of society. Opposition of socialist groups that want to maintain government intervention. Neoliberalism encourages free trade.
  • Aboriginalism

    Aboriginalism
    Aboriginalism is the claims for ancestral rights for the aboriginals and the recognition of the native identity through tradtions- writings, language, music, education...