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1960s-1970s timeline

  • Brown v. Board of Education ruling (description)

    Brown v. Board of Education ruling (description)
    On May 17, 1954, tHe Supreme Court unanimously agrees that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional.
  • Brown v. Board of Education ruling: Effects

    Intellectual: The gap in education between white schools and black schools is closed, and reveals a fundemental flaw in the "separate but equal" system of segregation. Political:The ruling paves the way for large-scale desegregation, starting with a small, but simultaniously enormous legislative leap for the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Brown v. Board of Education ruling: Social Connections

    Social: The success of the court case incited other movements to improve racial equality in institutions other than schools. Connection: One such area of improvement was the inequality of public transportation due to segregation laws.
  • Montgomery bus Boycott (description)

    Montgomery bus Boycott (description)
    in December 1, 1955, a NAACP meber Rosa Parks is arrested for the refusing to give up her seat of a bus to a white passenger. Using this oppertunity to expose racial inequality, the NAACP with the cooperation of Rosa herself, the NAACP organizes a one day bus boycott. The Montgomery Improvement Organization is formed to lead the effort, with Baptisis church minister Martin Luther King selected as its leader
    The boycott lead to its success, and the supreme court outlawed segregation on buses.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott: Social Connection

    NOTE: Contains reason "Social" and its respected connection to event "Birth of the S.C.L.C.". Social:The boycott was one of the first major victories of the civil-rights momvement in the 1950's and 60's, and its success inspired millions of African Americans all across the United States.
    Connection: Their inspiration lead to the formation of other equality groups and organizations, namely the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (S.C.L.C.)
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott: Effects

    Political: The Boycott succeeded in making segregation on public transportation illeagal, becoming one of the first steps to outlawing segregation all together. Economic: The boycott demonstrated the economic influence that African-Americans had in the role of everyday public works.
  • Brith of the S.C.L.C. (description)

    Brith of the S.C.L.C. (description)
    The representatives from various Civil Rights groups hold a conference in Atlanta, Georgia on January 1, 1957with the goal of forming a group to organize civil rights demonstrations and protests across the Southern UnitedStates. This group came to be known as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, or S.C.L.C.. Former Montgomery boycott leader Dr. Martin Luther King is appointed as the head of the newly formed S.C.L.C..
  • Birth of S.C.L.C.: Effects

    Political: The Civil Rights movment is given another organization to fight inequality. The S.C.L.C.becomes just as influential and involed as the NAACP that came before it. Religious: The S.C.L.C. was largely influenced by Christian ideals, though it welcomed people of all races and creeds. Nonetheless, the organization largley benefited from local churches their residents who often assisted the S.C.L.C. in their protests and demonstations.
  • Birth of the S.C.L.C.: Social connection

    Social: The strategy of nonviolant proteis popularized and made the formost form of protestby the S.C.L.C., and incites African Americans from all over the nation to follow and endores the ways of nonviolent practice. Connection: The drive for enquality combined with the cooperation and influence of several civil wrights groups allows various African American leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., to organize the famed "March on Washington".
  • works cited

    All information is derived from the American Anthem textbook. Here is the citation in MLA format: Ayers, Edward L., and Samuel S. Wineburg. American Anthem: Modern American History. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2007. Print.
  • The March on Washington (description)

    The March on Washington (description)
    In an attempt to gain public support for the Civil Rights movement, various leaders of the Civil Rrights movement organize an enormous public rally in Washington D.C.. The rally was monumentous, with over 200,000 members of all races and ethnicities in attendence. The rally was spear headed by speaches from Major Civil Rights figures, with Martin Luther King's "I have a Dream" speech being the rally's inspirational icing on the cake.
  • The March on Washington: Effects

    Social: The rally greatly increases public support for the movement, and once again moves the nation. The aspirations and hopes of Martin Luther King's speech Intelectual: King's "I have a Dream" speech proves to be an inspirational testimate to a humanitarian cause. The speech goes beyond politics and race to provide a vivid and down-to-earth representaion for the goals of the Civil Rights movment.
  • The March on Wathington: political connection

    Political: The March on washington brought the issue of Civil Rights into sharp political focus. The political aims of the Civil Rights movement were clear as day, and the mood of the nation was sweeping reform for Civil Rights. Connection: president Johnson was one of those who wanted reform. President Johnson sought the passage of an extensive Civil Rights bill, one that would bring about the people's want to sweeping reform. The bill was known as the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 (description)

    Civil Rights Act of 1964 (description)
    In response to several subsequent hate crimes follwoing the March on Washington, President Johnson signed The Civil Rights Act on May 23, 1964. The bill prohibited descrimination in employment and in public accomodations.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964: Effects

    Political: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 displayed the United States government's firm posistion on freedom and equal rights for African Americans. From now on, all people would be protected under the law from descrimination. Intellectual: The Intent of the Lyndon Administration become known, but a large part of America resisted the change. The problem becomes evident, with de facto segregation acting as an obvious elephant-in-the-room socially and politically.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964: Social Connection

    Social: The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was seen as a major victory for the Civil Rights movement, but the Civil Rights Act did not bring an end to the Civil Rights movemen. Opposition still persisted from Southern racists whites, and de facto segregation was prevelent throughout the Southern United States.
    Connection: The existance of segregation in the south gave fervor to Civil Rights movement, and activists coninued to protest descrimination all over the south in place like Selma Alabama.
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution (description)

    Tonkin Gulf Resolution (description)
    President Lyndon Johnson is convinced that in order to achieve victory in Vietnam, the U.S. needed to become more involved by expanding American military operations in Vietnam. He got the oppertunity when a report of an elleged engagement between a North Vietnamese submarine and a U.S. destroyer on August 7, 1964, approved the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which enabled the preident to take Executive military action in order to protect the United States from foriegn threats.
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution: Effects

    Political: The Tonkin Gulf Resolution changed the political nature of the Executive Branch of government. The President would now be able to, in essence, declare war without the consent of Congress.
    Social:
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution: Military Connection

    Military: The advent of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution lead the United States to become fully invested in the Vietnam conflict. Connection: The Tonkin Gulf Resolution segwayed the U.S. into conflict with North Vietnam. The conflict would escelate to a large scale assault on America military posistions known as the Tet Offensive.
  • March on Selma, Alabama (description)

    March on Selma, Alabama (description)
    On March 7, 1965, Martin Luther King began a campaign amied at securing equal rights for African Americans. He organized marches in the town of Selma, Alabama to bring awareness to the issue. King sought mass arrest of protesters to bring media attention to the movement. His plan had the desired effect, showing news networks the brutality and savegr of the Selma police fore during the march.
  • March on Selma, Alabama: Effects

    Social: The march on Selma brought support to the Civil Rights movement and its aim for voting equality. It one of the many events that brought attention to the movement and help to spur the American people into action. Intellectual: The March on Selma became a center of controversy and debate. It showcased a clear discrepency between the values of the nation and the reality of how people felt.
  • March on Selma, Alabama: Political Connection

    Political: The March on Selma demonstrated the need for continued reform in regaurds to civil rights. The Need for reform encited politicians and law makers to act. Connection: The incitation for reform caused by the march on Selma promted politicians to act. President Lyndon Johnson was the first to propose a bill to protect the voting rights of individuals.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965 (description)

    Voting Rights Act of 1965 (description)
    As a response to the various examples of violance and bigotry against voting rights demonstrations, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The act banned the literacy test and the poll tax, making it much easier for African Americans to register to vote.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965: Effects

    Intellectual: Once again the U.S. Government sought to close the gap between its core values and the reality of the situation. Political: Provided African Americans with the ability to have more sya in their government, and would be responsible for the
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Social: Once again the Civil Rights movement reached a critical goal in achieving equality. It fuel to the fire of the Civil rights movement, giving the steam engine that the coal that it needed to progress further. Though not everyone was convinced of the movemet's progress. Connection: There were other organizations that saw the Civil Rights movement as ineffective, despite the advances in racial equality. One such organization was know as the Black Panther Party.
  • The Black Panther Party (description)

    The Black Panther Party (description)
    Soon after the Voting Rights Act, divides in the Civil Rights movement began to show. In October 1, 1966, a new civil rights organization was formed: The Black Panther Party. Unlike many other non-violant civil rights organizations, the Black Panthers viewed violant revolution as necessary for African American liberation.
  • The Black Panther Party: Effects

    Intellectual: The Black Panther Party's belief in vilant revolution was a stark contrast to beliefs of countless other civil rights organizations before it. The Black Panthers spark much national debate on the motives as well as the moral justifications of their actions. Political: The violant revolution that the Black Panther sought brought them under the whatchful eyes of the F.B.I., who became determine to topple the organization in the interests of national security.
  • The Black Panther Party: Social Connection

    Social: The Black Panther's method of violant revolution brought it into an ideological conflict with other civil rights groups. It was though this conflict and incompatible protest methods that the cracks and divisions of the Civil Rights movment began to show. Connection: Because of the growing divides in the movement, the civil right movement and many of it's leading organizations, namely the S.C.L.C. began to disintegrate.
  • The Tet Offensive

    The Tet Offensive
    In January of 1968, Viet Cong and NVA troops launche d a large scale suprise attack on several United States military positions. The bulk of the attack accured on January 30, 1968, which was the start of the Vietnamese New-Year "Tet". After 77 days of laying siege to U.S. positions, the Viet Cong and NVA had fail; the U.S. had held all of its strategic positions.
  • The Tet Offensive: (all) Effects

    Social: The Tet Offensive shattered the preceptions that many Americans had for the Vietnam War, mainly that the Communist forces were on the brink of defeat and that the U.S. was on the verge of victory.
    Political: The Tet Offensive shifted the focus of U.S. politics untill the end of the Vietnam War, namely finding a way to end the war quickly and effectively.
    Military: despite public outcry, U.S. involvement actually increased. The goal of the military became finding a way to end the war.