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Cold War and Civil Rights Movement

  • Creation of Israel

    Creation of Israel
    Israel was created as a Jewish homeland. After persecution during the Holocaust, the Jewish people were given a homeland where they could be safe. It is not very safe, because the countries of the Middle East are not happy about Israel being on their land. Israel has almost constant conflict with Palestine.
  • Creation of NATO

    Creation of NATO
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A group created to protect countries against the potential threat of communism. In return, communist nations created the Warsaw Pact.
  • Korean War

    Korean War
    Korea was divided into two nations, the Northern communist Korea and the Southern democratic Korea. North Korea invaded and attempted to take over South Korea. The United States intervened to prevent the spread of communism. In the end no one really won and Korea remained separated.
  • Domino Theory

    Domino Theory
    A term created by President Eisenhower. Eisenhower feared that if one country fell to communism more countries would fall as well, like dominoes. He feared that it would happen quick and it would be unable to stop if any more countries became communist.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    A supreme court case where Oliver Brown sued the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. He sued over how the segregated schools did not provide equal opportunities. In the end the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation in schools was unequal.
  • The Warsaw Pact

    The Warsaw Pact
    The Warsaw Pact was formed to bring together communist nations. Unified military actions whenever one of the Pact members was threatened. The Warsaw Pact was a direct response to NATO, made by the democratic nations.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    Longest US involvement in a war. Vietnam was split in two, communist and democratic. The Viet Cong were communist supporters who lived in the Democratic south. A stalemate agreement was reached and the US removed its troops. After that, the North invaded and conquered South Vietnam.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    African Americans protested segregated buses peacefully by refusing to use the city buses in Montgomery, Alabama. This boycott was started after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on the bus. This led to the Supreme Court ordering Montgomery to integrate the buses.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    Nine African American Students were admitted into Little Rock Central High School. The nine students were Ernest Green, Elizabeth Eckford, Jefferson Thomas, Terrance Robers, Carlotta Walls LaNier, Minnijean Brown, Gloria Ray Karlmark, Thelma Mothershed, and Melba Pattillo Beals. This was after the very important court case, Brown v the Board of Education.
  • Launching of Sputnik

    Launching of Sputnik
    Russian space exploration began with the launch of the Sputnik satellite. This made the United States nervous so more money was turned towards science in explorations to beat the Soviet Union.
  • Greensboro Sit-Ins

    Greensboro Sit-Ins
    In Greensboro, North Carolina, young college students began peaceful protests by using civil disobedience. They would sit down at "Whites Only" counters and seats and refuse to move for what they believed in. Inspired by the peaceful teachings of Gandhi.
  • U-2 Spy Incident

    U-2 Spy Incident
    President Eisenhower and Nikita Khrushchev were on good terms. Until Eisenhower sent a plane to spy on the Soviets. When the plane was shot down Eisenhower denied spying, this created tension between the US and Russia.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    A failed invasion of Cuba. Fidel Castro launched a counter attack after the first invasion. Gave a bad reputation to the Kennedy administration.
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    Thirteen civil rights activists started the freedom rides on May 4th, 1961. The rides were to test to see if the integrated bus system was really safe for African Americans. The group was met by violent protesters.
  • Berlin Wall

    Berlin Wall
    A wall built in the capital of Germany. Separated East and West Berlin, one side was communist while the other was democratic. Came down in 1989, it fell when communism did.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    Soviet nuclear missiles were installed in Cuba, this led to a thirteen day stand off between the US and Russia. The people of the United States feared an attack because the missiles were only 90 miles away. The issue was resolved without violence.
  • "I Have a Dream" Speech

    "I Have a Dream" Speech
    Delivered by Martin Luther King Jr at the March on Washington. This speech was about his dreams for the future of America and how he hoped that one day people would be able to live together in equality.
  • JFK Assassination

    JFK Assassination
    President John F Kennedy was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald. He was campaigning in Texas when it happened. After his death Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into office.
  • 24th Amendment

    24th Amendment
    The 24th Amendment was passed and ended the need for the Poll Tax. This tax was an unfair method for keeping African Americans from voting at the polls. The Civil Rights Movement led to the creation of the 24th Amendment.
  • Freedom Summer

    Freedom Summer
    The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee organized what they called a Freedom Summer, College students would go to the south and help African Americans register to vote. They were met by violent protests from southerners, especially in the state of Mississippi. Three of the students went missing during the Freedom Summer, they were murdered for trying to help people.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Brought an end to segregation in public places and prohibited racial discrimination. Was originally Kennedy's plan but he was killed before he could put in place. President Johnson put it in place.
  • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

    Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
    After two US ships were attacked by North Vietnamese soldiers in the Gulf of Tonkin, President Johnson requested that Congress allow for more military action. The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was passed. This gave President Johnson the power to do anything he deemed necessary involving the fight in Vietnam.
  • Malcolm X Assassination

    Malcolm X Assassination
    Malcolm X was a leading figure in Civil Rights like Martin Luther King Jr. But his approach was much less peaceful, he believed that any action necessary should be taken in order to get equal rights. When he changed his view point he was killed by some of his own extreme followers.
  • Bloody Sunday in Selma, Alabama

    Bloody Sunday in Selma, Alabama
    A march on Selma to peacefully protest the fact that African Americans were not being allowed to vote. It turned violent when a state trooper was killed. The march was led by Martin Luther King J.R.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    Act passed by Lyndon B. Johnson. This act got rid of the literacy tests that the southern states used to prevent minorities from voting.
  • Loving v. Virginia

    Loving v. Virginia
    A white man and an african american woman were married in the District of Columbia. When they came back the the United States, they were arrested because it was illegal for them to be married in Virginia. The Supreme Court decided that is was not the State's decision to tell someone who they could and could not marry.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination

    Martin Luther King Jr. Assassination
    Martin Luther King Jr. was shot and killed in Memphis Tennessee in his motel. He was killed by James Earl Ray. Martin Luther King Jr. was the main leader of the Civil Rights Movement and his death sparked outrage in the African American community.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    Civil Rights Act of 1968
    The Civil Rights Act was passed to prevent judgement based on race, sex, religion, or natural origin. It was signed by president Lyndon B. Johnson. It was a follow up to the Act of 1964.
  • Woodstock

    A music festival that celebrated peace and unity. Lasted for three day in upstate New York. Several famous musicians were present at this festival.
  • Kent State Protest

    Kent State Protest
    Protests at Kent State University turned violent as firing started. Four students were killed and nine were wounded.Due to this over 500 colleges were temporarily shut down due to violent outcries.