Cold War (1963-1990)

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    Pol Pot

    was the leader of the communist party in Cambodia. He was an extreme communist that was determined to get rid of all signs of western culture within the society, calling this year "zero". April 17 1975 he took control of Cambodia and this led to a great genocide against all western culture.
  • Valery Giscard D' Estang

    Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing, MCCF, (February 2, 1926 - ) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981.
  • Czechoslovakian Crisis

    The crisis was caused when Germany demanded Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland. However, Czechoslovakian head of state Eduard Benes was unwilling to give up a region that made up about a quarter of his nation's population and much of its industrial belt. In addition the Sudetenland provided a natural mountainious defensive zone against Germany and Czechoslovakia had built extensive fortifications in the area to defend against a German attack, In the end, they withdrew.
  • Pentagon Papers

    A classified study of the Vietnam War that was carried out by the Department of Defense. An official of the department, Daniel Ellsberg, gave copies of the study in 1971 to the New York Times and Washington Post . The Supreme Court upheld the right of the newspapers to publish the documents. In response, President Richard Nixon ordered some members of his staff, afterward called the “plumbers,” to stop such “leaks” of information. The “plumbers,” among other activities, broke into the office of
  • European Economic Community

    organization established (1958) by a treaty signed in 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany (now Germany); it was known informally as the Common Market. The EEC was the most significant of the three treaty organizations that were consolidated in 1967 to form the European Community.
  • Alexander Solzhenitsyn

    He was an author from Russia who wrote One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962), which was initially banned. Pretty much all his books were banned because they were against the ideas of the Russian leaders.
  • Ayatollah Khomeini

    In 1962 he became politically active and openly protested against the torturing and imprisonment of the people by the Shah of Iran, whose regime was seen to be safeguarding the interests of the US. On 3 June 1963, Khomeini made a historical speech against the dependence of the Shah’s regime on foreign powers, and its support of Israel. He was immediately arrested, but his imprisonment inspired major public demonstrations of support, that were eventually crushed by government troops in tanks.
  • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    On August 5, 1963, after more than eight years of difficult negotiations, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.
  • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    The treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT)is a treaty prohibiting all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground. It was developed both to slow the arms race (nuclear testing was, at the time, necessary for continued nuclear weapon advancements), and to stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet's
  • Ngo Dinh Diem

    Was the first president of South Vietnam (1955–1963). In the wake of the French withdrawal from Indochina as a result of the 1954 Geneva Accords, Diệm led the effort to create the Republic of Vietnam. Accruing considerable U.S. support due to his staunch anti-Communism, he achieved victory in a 1955 plebiscite that was widely considered fraudulent. A Roman Catholic, Diệm pursued biased and religiously oppressive policies against the Republic's Montagnard natives and its Buddhist majority.
  • Tonkin Gulf resolution

    Congressional resolution passed in 1964 that authorized military action in Southeast Asia. On Aug. 4, 1964, North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin were alleged to have attacked without provocation U.S. destroyers that were reporting intelligence information to South Vietnam. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his advisers decided upon immediate air attacks on North Vietnam in retaliation; he also asked Congress for a mandate for future military action. On Aug. 7, a resolution was made
  • Leonid Breszhnev

    was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained US 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), US Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
  • Alexi Kosygin

    was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War. Kosygin was born in the city of St. Petersburg in 1904 to a Russian working class family. He was conscripted into the labor army during the Russian Civil War, and after the Red Army's demobilisation in 1921, he worked in Siberia as an industrial manager.
  • "yippies"

    Term created by Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin in the mid-1960s to refer to "members" of the Youth International Party (YIP!). The YIP! was dedicated to merging New Left activism and the hippie counterculture to create a revolution that would be both personal and political--as well as fun. Yippies tended to gather in large cities, particularly in Manhattan's Lower East Side, where Rubin and Hoffman both lived during the 1960s.
  • Six Day War

    The Israelis defended the war as a preventative military effort to counter what the Israelis saw as an impending attack by Arab nations that surrounded Israel. The Six-Day War was initiated by General Moshe Dayan, the Israeli’s Defence Minister. The Israelis launched a hugely successful military campaign against its perceived enemies. The war was a disaster for the Arab world and temporarily weakened the man who was seen as the leader of the Arabs – Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt.
  • Tet offensive

    was a military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched on January 30, 1968. Regular and irregular forces of the People's Army of Vietnam fought against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), the United States, and their allies. The purpose of the offensive was to utilize the element of surprise and strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam, during a period when no attacks were supposed take place.
  • My Lai Massacre

    was the Vietnam War mass murder of between 347 and 504 unarmed civilians in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, by United States Army soldiers of "Charlie" Company of 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry Regiment, 11th Brigade of the Americal Division. Most of the victims were women, children (including babies), and elderly people. Some of the bodies were later found to be mutilated. 26 US soldiers were initially charged with criminal offenses for their actions at Mỹ Lai only one was convicted.
  • Nuclear Non-Profileration Treaty

    The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
  • Khe Sanh

    was conducted in northwestern Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), between 21 January and 9 July 1968 during the Vietnam War. The combatants were elements of the United States (U.S.) III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF), elements of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and two to three division-size elements of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN). The American command in South Vietnam gave the defense of the base the nickname (Operation Scotland).
  • Crosby,Stills,Nash and young

    is a folk rock supergroup made up of David Crosby, Stephen Stills and Graham Nash, also known as Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young (CSNY) when joined by occasional fourth member Neil Young. They are noted for their intricate vocal harmonies, often tumultuous interpersonal relationships, political activism, and lasting influence on music and culture.
  • Kent State Incident

    On May 4, l970 members of the Ohio National Guard fired into a crowd of Kent State University demonstrators, killing four and wounding nine Kent State students. The impact of the shootings was dramatic. The event triggered a nationwide student strike that forced hundreds of colleges and universities to close. H. R. Haldeman, a top aide to President Richard Nixon, suggests the shootings had a direct impact on national politics.
  • Invasion Of Cambodia

    The first time was in 1970 by American and South Vietnamese troops during the Vietnam War
    The Cambodian Campaign (also known as the Cambodian Incursion) was a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during mid-1970 by the United States (U.S.) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) during the Vietnam War. These invasions were a result of policy of President Richard Nixon whose decision it was to invaded.
  • SALT 1 and 2 Treaties

    SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, extended from November 1969 to May 1972. During that period the United States and the Soviet Union negotiated the first agreements to place limits and restraints on some of their central and most important armaments. SALT II began, in November 1972, to reduce the administrative burdens involved in shifting sites it was agreed to hold them henceforth in one place -- Geneva.)
  • Yom Kippur War

    The Yom Kippur War of 1973, the most recent ‘full’ war in Middle East history, is so-called because it began on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), the holiest day of prayer and fasting in the Jewish calendar. The Yom Kippur War is also known as the October War. At the time of Yom Kippur, Israel was led by Golda Meir and Egypt by Anwar Sadat
  • Halmet Schmidt

    is a German Social Democratic politician who served as Chancellor of West Germany from 1974 to 1982. Prior to becoming chancellor, he had served as Minister of Defence and Minister of Finance. He had also served briefly as Minister of Economics and as acting Foreign Minister. He is the oldest surviving German Chancellor and the last surviving person to have been solely Chancellor of West Germany.
  • Muammar Kadaffi

    was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the "Brother Leader" of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.
  • Sandinistas

    members of a left-wing Nicaraguan political party, the Sandinist National Liberation Front (FSLN). The group, named for Augusto Cesar Sandino, a former insurgent leader, was formed in 1962. In 1979 the Sandinistas launched an offensive from Costa Rica and Honduras that toppled Somoza. They established a junta that nationalized industries like banking and mining, postponed elections, and moved steadily to the left, eventually espousing Marxist ideas.
  • US Response to USSR'S Invasion of Afganistan

    The United States led a boycott of the summer Olympics in Moscow and withdrew its support for new arms control treaty. Additionally, after being elected in 1980, Ronald Reagan initiated a massive military buildup and showed a greater willingness to confront communism.
  • Solidarity/Lech Walesa

    is a Polish politician, trade-union organizer, and human-rights activist. A charismatic leader, he co-founded Solidarity (Solidarność), the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland between 1990 and 1995.
  • Helmut Kohl

    is a German conservative politician and statesman. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 (of West Germany between 1982 and 1990 and of the reunited Germany between 1990 and 1998) and the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) from 1973 to 1998. His 16-year tenure was the longest of any German chancellor since Otto von Bismarck and oversaw the end of the Cold War and the German reunification.
  • Manuel Noriega

    is a former Panamanian politician and soldier. He was military governor of Panama from 1983 to 1989 until he was captured by the US who put him in prison for drug trafficking, racketeering, and money laundering. After this he was forced to serve time in Panama and France for similar crimes.
  • Strategic defence initiative

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Wilson Reagan was the 40th President of the United States on March 23, 1983 to use ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic Nuclear weapon
  • Grenada Incident

    It was six days after Prime Minister Maurice Bishop was executed by Bernard Coard's Stalanist sect, the United States armed forces landed troops on the beaches of Grenada. Bishop was leading a coup against the creation of Grenada becoming a totalitarian state. This increasing totalitarian state was seen as a threat to the safety of some of the countries alligned with the US and as a reult they attacked. The US outnumbered them and won.
  • Iran-contra affair

    secret arrangement in the 1983-5 to provide funds to the Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran. It was the product of two separate initiatives during the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The first was a commitment to aid the contras who were conducting a guerrilla war against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua. The second was to placate “moderates” within the Iranian government in order to secure the release of American hostages.
  • Daniel Ortega

    is a Nicaraguan politician. He was president in 1985 and 1990 and then again in 2007. He is also a leader in the socialist Sandinista National Liberation Front (Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, FSLN), and his policies in government have seen the implementation of leftist reforms across Nicaragua
  • Perestroika

    In Russian is literally means reconstructing. It was the policy of economic and governmental reform instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union during the mid-1980s.
  • Yasser Arafat

    was the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the coordinating body for Palestinian organizations, and head of Al Fatah, the largest group in the PLO.
    In 1988 the PLO, under Arafat's leadership, in effect renounced terrorism and accepted Israel's right to coexist with an independent Palestine. A 1993 accord with Israel led to limited Palestinian self-rule in Jericho and the Gaza Strip in 1994, and Arafat became president of the Palestinian Authority Read more: Yasir Arafat — I
  • Glasnost

    was the policy of maximal publicity, openness, and transparency in the activities of all government institutions in the Soviet Union, together with freedom of information, introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the second half of the 1980s, and is often paired with Perestroika (literally: Restructuring), another reform instituted by Gorbachev at the same time.
  • Mikhail Gorbachev

    is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the Soviet Union, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991. He was the only general secretary in the history of the Soviet Union to have been born during the Communist rule.
  • Cause of the US Invasion of Panama

    Keep the US citizens in Panama safe, defend democracy and human rights in panama, combat drug trafficking and Protecting the integrity of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties, the United States had the right under the treaties to intervene militarily to protect the Panama canal.