Classical Period (1730-1820)

  • Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764)

    Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764)
    The beginnings of the ideas of modern music theory started with "Treatise on Harmony" (1722)
  • Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782)

    Pietro Metastasio (1698-1782)
    Court poet in Vienna. Primary librettist for opera seria in the late baroque and classical periods.
  • Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1700-1775)

    Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1700-1775)
    Italian composer who created the symphony in Milan. The symphony was originally 3 movements, but was moved to 4 in Mannheim, Germany.
  • Fredrick the Great (1712-1786)

    Fredrick the Great (1712-1786)
    Patron of the Prussian arts. Composed at least 100 sonatas and 4 symphonies.
  • C.P.E. Bach (1714-1788)

    C.P.E. Bach (1714-1788)
    Son of J.S. worked in Berlin for Fredrick the Great who reigned over the Kingdom of Prussia. Most important composer of the Empfindsamkeit style: to play from the soul. Not many large compositions, but he was a massive influence on composers such as Mozart.
  • Charles Burney (1726-1814)

    Charles Burney (1726-1814)
    Amateur composer, writer, and music scholar. Wrote many books that are primary sources as he knew the composers in the books.
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    Rococo Style

    New charming and over the top style. Many trills and grace notes.
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

    Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
    Primary mover within the classical style concerning instrumental style, but he did not invent it. Credited with popularizing the string quartet.
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    Classical Music Traits

    Melodies that can be sung, symmetrical phrasing, simple relationships of V to I, slower harmonic rhythms, easy accompaniment, and larger forms
  • Giovanni Paisiello (1740-1816)

    Giovanni Paisiello (1740-1816)
    Italian composer that wrote 94 operas. Spent time in Naples, St. Petersburg, and Paris.
  • William Billings (1746-1800)

    William Billings (1746-1800)
    One of the first American composers. Wasn't the best composer. Most music was sacred choral music.
  • Antonio Salieri (1750-1825)

    Antonio Salieri (1750-1825)
    One of the successful court composers in Vienna. More successful than Mozart because he was popular and reliable. Was easy to work with compared to Mozart.
  • String quartet

    String quartet
    four movements, following the general outline of a symphony. Haydn made these popular. Invented by Franz Xaver Richter
  • Maria Anna Mozart (1751-1829)

    Maria Anna Mozart (1751-1829)
    Mozart's older sister. Toured with Mozart during her childhood. Her father Leopold regards her as one of the most talented musicians in all of Europe.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
    Child prodigy who was used for his talent along with his sister. Keyboard virtuoso, a violinist and dancer. Always tested by more experienced musicians. Never worked for anyone because he was not recognized well within the community. One of the greatest musicians of all time.
  • Maria Theresa von Paradis (1759-1824)

    Maria Theresa von Paradis (1759-1824)
    Excellent pianist and organist even though she was blind. She could hold 60 concertos at a time in her musical memory. Composed two concertos, a piano trio, songs, cantatas, operas, and other chamber music.
  • Opera Buffa

    Opera Buffa
    Operas used to be comedic, but turned to serious themes along with the comedic elements. Operas also had plot thanks to Mozart. Libretto: the written story that the composer sets to music.
  • Aloysia Weber (c. 1760-1839)

    Aloysia Weber (c. 1760-1839)
    The first love of Mozart. Mozart composed arias and leading roles for her including "The Magic Flute".
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    Industrial Revolution

    Significant advances in modernization. Made mass production possible for the first time.
  • Franz Xaver Sussmayr (1766-1803)

    Franz Xaver Sussmayr (1766-1803)
    May have been Mozart's student or a friend of his. Was said to be next to Mozart at the time of his death. Finished Mozart's "Requiem" when Mozart died eight measures in.
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    The American Revolution

    Wanting to be free from tyranny, the population of the 13 colonies established its own government and an army to combat the British militaries. The new Americans were against the odds and claimed their freedom from the British rule.
  • The Marriage of Figaro (1786)

    The Marriage of Figaro (1786)
    Drama that was in four acts. Based on a play that was banned in France. Only successful in Vienna because it downplayed aristocrats.
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    The French Revolution

    Once the class struggle is highlighted, the French citizens think the answer is the royal leaders. The French hunt down every royal they can, but appoint Napoleon as their new dictator.
  • First Vaccine Developed

    First Vaccine Developed
    In 1796, Edward Jenner cured a 13 year old boy who had a case of cowpox. The boy was proven time and time again to have immunity to cowpox. In 1798, the first smallpox vaccine was developed, leading to the systematic eradication of smallpox in 1979.
  • Valve Trumpet

    Valve Trumpet
    Innovation to the trumpet so it could play pitches in between the harmonic series.
  • Steam Locomotives

    Steam Locomotives
    The first working model of the steam locomotive was produced in America by steamboat pioneer John Fitch and was the first to use bladed wheels. The first full scale locomotive was made in the United Kingdom by Richard Trevithick in 1804. Trevithick's final version introduced a high pressure system, which made the locomotives lighter and more efficient.