Civil war soldiers

Civil War Timeline

  • Invention of the Cotton Gin

    Invention of the Cotton Gin
    The cotton gin was invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney. He was a Massachusetts native who was one of the key leaders of the Industrial Revolution. The cotton gin was a vital machine in the history of manufacturing. It made it much easier for the slave toe slave to seperate the seed from the cotton fiber. This machine revolutionized the cotton industry. It increased production and consumption. Whitney couldn't stop people from copying his design. This is why is business eventually failed.
  • Invention of the Cotton Gin Pt. 2

    Invention of the Cotton Gin Pt. 2
    This event was key because it revolutionized the slave trade and made it necessary to have more slaves so that more cotton could be picked. The cotton was being sent through the gin just as fast as it could be picked. The helped the economy because it increased the slave trade rapidly from Africa.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a method of sneaking enslaved Africans out of the South and captivity. They were sent through a series of routes and friendly houses and were often led by former slaves. Thousands of slaves are said to have escaped via the Underground Railroad with the true number being greatly disputed. The Railroad began in the late 1790's when Isaac Hopper began transporting slaves out of captivity and into Canada.
  • Underground Railroad Pt. 2

    Underground Railroad Pt. 2
    One of the most famous conductors of the Underground Railroad was Harriet Tubman. She is estimated to have rescued over 500 slaves. The ideal destination of the Railroad was Canada, where the slaves could begin a new lfe as a free person.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise was an agreement that was passed in 1820. It was between pro and anti slavery states that addressed slavery in newly acquired lands from the Louisiana Purchase. It made known that slavery was illegal in all areas above the 36 30' parallel, excluding Missouri. It was passed so that there would be a set procedure for admitting new states into the Union. This was done to make sure the balance of power was kept in tact so that slave states and free states were equal in power.
  • Missouri Compromise Pt. 2

    Missouri Compromise Pt. 2
    In this agreement, Missouri was admitted into the Union as a slave state while Maine was included as a free state. It was put into effect as a standard for admitting new states into the Union. It was a way to keep the peace between the two different factions in regards to voting and power of the states.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The Wilmot Proviso was an unpassed act that attempted to ban slavery in all lands that the U.S. acquired from Mexico. The bill was first proposed on Auguast 8, 1846 by David Wilmot. It was part of a larger bill that would settle differences in the Mexican-American War. The Wilmot Proviso was proposed 3 different times in a 1 and 1/2 year span. All three times it was passed in the House but shot down in the Senate.
  • Wilmot Proviso Pt. 2

    Wilmot Proviso Pt. 2
    The United States ended up passing the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This treaty ended the Mexican-American War and settled the tiff with Mexico over disputed lands.
  • Compromise of 1850 Pt. 2

    Compromise of 1850 Pt. 2
    The compromise and list of bills was originally written by "The Great Compromiser" Henry Clay. Stephen Douglas helped seal the deal along with Henry Clay.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The Compromise of 1850 was a group of 5 bills passed. This was the ending of a four year scuffle between the pro-slavery South and anti-slavery South. They were fighting over the lands that the Mexicans released to them in the Mexican-American War. The two American sides had been arguing over if the acquired territory should be for or against slavery. This compromise eased tension in the states and defused the situation. This kept both sides calm from seceeding and avoided conflict for a while.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin was a book published in 1852 that was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was intended to shed light onto the horrors of slavery for Northerners to see. It is a fictional novel that is based on real events. All of the characters are fiction, but can be related to real life slaves and what they experienced. Uncle Tom's Cabin was the first novel that was spread throughout the country and read by millions.The novel tells the story of two different people: Tom, and his family,
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin Pt. 2

    Uncle Tom's Cabin Pt. 2
    and also the story of Tom's mother, Eliza. Uncle Tom's Cabin had such a big impact on the world that in this time period it was the second most translated book ever, just behind the Bible.
  • Caning of Charles Sumnr

    Caning of Charles Sumnr
    The Caning of Charles Sumner occured when Senator Charles Sumner was beat on the Senate floor with a cane. The perpetrator, Preston Brooks, was offended by one of Sumner's speeches. The speech in question involved when Sumner delivered a speech on if Kansas should be a slave or free state. Sumner mentioned Andrew Butler, Brooks relative, in a deragatory tone and this offended Brooks. Sumner approached Sumner on the Senate floor and began lashing out on Sumner's head.
  • Caning of Charles Sumner Pt. 2

    Caning of Charles Sumner Pt. 2
    Even after the attack and recovery of Sumner, he went on to serve 18 more years in the Senate. Brooks was given a light punishment, forced to leave office, but soon after re-elected into office. He died a short time afterwards at the young age of 37.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    Dred Scott Decision
    The decision of Dred Scott v. Sanford was one of the most controversial and well remembered Supreme Court cases ever. It addressed the freedom of Dred Scott. Also, on a bigger picture it explained that people of African descent could never be citizens of the United States. Dred Scott was a slave who was taken into many different areas where slavery was illegal. This made him feel as if he was a free man and not someones property.
  • Dred Scott Decision Pt. 2

    Dred Scott Decision Pt. 2
    Scott sued for his freedom, and was granted it by two different courts before he was taken infront of the Supreme Court. There, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney and his constituents ruled that all slaves were solely property and not protected under any part of United States law. This ruling began many riots and different uprisings because of the blatant unfairness of this outcome.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates Pt. 2

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates Pt. 2
    This was when Lincoln forced Douglas to pick between popular sovereignty or the Dred Scott Decision. He chose the popular sovereignty route, which meant the people should decide if they want slavery or not. Stephen A. Douglas eventually ended up winning the Senate race.
  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    The Lincoln-Douglas debates were political debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas. They were both competing to be the Republican candidate in the Illinois Senate race. There were a total of seven debates, all located in different Illinois towns. The main topic that was discussed between the two at every debate was slavery, and how they would address this in the future. A key part of these debates was the Freeport Doctrine.
  • Raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia

    Raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia
    Harper's Ferry, Virginia was the site of a federal arsenal which was under siege by a group of abolishionist. The leader of this detatchment was John Brown. Brown attempted to overtake the Federal Arsenal and establish a base here. A group of Marines, led by then Col. Robert E. Lee, stopped the attack and killed and wounded many of browns men. The anti-slavery men were outnumbered in terms of men and weaponry.
  • Raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia

    Raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia
    There were many noted abolitionist who were supposed to take place in this uprising. For example, Harriet Tubman fell ill and couldn't make it and Frederick Douglass thought that the plan wouldn't succeed and didn't arrive. Brown was severely wounded in this attack and later hanged for his actions.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    The Election of 1860 was the presidential election that occured on November 6, 1860. It consisted of four major candidates, Abraham Lincoln, John C. Breckinridge, John Bell, and Stephen A. Douglas. Even though Lincoln was disliked by the south, he won the election because he was strongly supported by the North anti-slavery voters. This election was strongly influence by the impeding question of slavery and the future of slaves. The incumbment president at the time was James A. Buchanan.
  • Election of 1860 2nd. Part

    Election of 1860 2nd. Part
    Lincoln's closest opponent was Stephen A. Douglas. He won a clear cut majority of votes in the South, where Lincoln was a huge underdog and highly doubted to win. In the end, he overcame the popular vote and won the election in the Electoral College.
  • Formation of Confederate States of America Pt. 2

    Formation of Confederate States of America Pt. 2
    The Conferates elected Jefferson Davis as their first, and only president. Davis was a former Senator from Mississippi, and also was the Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. The Confederacy was a very agricultural country, that relied heavily on the production of cotton and the use of slaves to keep their economy functioning.
  • Formation of the Confederate States of America

    Formation of the Confederate States of America
    The Confederate States of America was a group of former states that seceeded from the USA. They were all slave posessing states and were unhappy of the election of President Abraham Lincoln. They feared that their way of life was being threatened by this President and his attempt to end slavery. The CSA stationed their capital in Richmond, Virginia.
  • Ft. Sumter Pt. 2

    Ft. Sumter Pt. 2
    The South attempted to cut off all supplies that were shipped in to help the North. Major Anderson refused to bow out and fought very bravely. This battle is key because it set off the American Civil War and was also a key victory for the South,
  • Ft. Sumter

    Ft. Sumter
    The Battle of Fort Sumter was the battle that started the Civil War. The newly seceeded Confederacy attacked the fort at around 4 A.M. They were led by P.G.T. Beauregard and the Union was led by Robert Anderson. It's ironic because Anderson was Beauregard's instructor at West Point, but Beauregard bested him in this battle. The CSA outnumbered the North by about 5:1 and were much stronger.
  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    The First Battle of Bull Run was fought near Manassas, Virginia. It was the first head-to-head battle of the Civil War where two forces faced off on land. Irvin McDowell led the Union troops and the Confederate troops were led by P.G.T. Beauregard. Beauregard and his men defended Manassas Junction sucessfully and killed many Union troops. This was a crucial win for the South because it motivated many troops.
  • First Battle of Bull Run Pt. 2

    First Battle of Bull Run Pt. 2
    Both sides had an even number of men, around 18,000, fighting. This was a major upset battle for the South, who were expected to get beat pretty easily by the Union forces.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    The Battle of Shiloh was a Civil War battle that took place deep in Tennessee. Ulysses Grant led the Union and Albert Johnston led the CSA. The North possessed about 20,000 more men than the South, and overpowered them in this battle. Even though the North had more casualties, they were able to win because they had more men at their disposal. In this battle, the North attacked the Southern barriers.
  • Battle of Shiloh Pt. 2

    Battle of Shiloh Pt. 2
    The Union army forced the CSA to retreat back from their original lines. General Grant's attacked followed along the flow of the Tennessee River.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The Battle of Antietam was a major battle in the Civil War. It was the first battle that occured in Northern territory. With about 3800 deaths, it was the deadliest single day battle, unlike the Battle of Gettysburg, which occured over 3 days. The commander of the South was once again Robert E. Lee, but in this battle George B. McClellan led the Union Army. McClellan was able to hold off Lee's army, which was constantly trying to invade over the bridge in Antietam.
  • Battle of Antietam Pt. 2

    Battle of Antietam Pt. 2
    This victory for the Union paved the way for President Lincoln to deliver the Emancipation Proclamation. This forbid slavery in all states that fought against the Union. This proved effective for the Union because it gave the Northern Army the chance to have former slaves and free black the chance to fight for the Union.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    The Emancipation Proclamation was an order by President Abraham Lincoln issued after the Battle of Antietam. The issued statement released the slaves in all states that were fighting against the Union. This left the border states (Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware and Maryland) free to keep their slaves. It was considered more of a good faith act then a direct order because the South had no power to mess with the South at this time. It freed only a mere 50,000 of the over 4 million slaves present.
  • Emancipation Proclamation Pt. 2

    Emancipation Proclamation Pt. 2
    This Proclamation also gave the Union a reason and cause to fight, which raised morale and spirits. This act made it legal for free black men to fight for the Union and this increased the numbers of the Union Army. Even though this claimed to free slavery, it wasn't completely ended until Lincoln proposed and had the 13th Amendment ratified in 1865.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg was a three day battle that occured in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and lasted from July 1-3. In the measure of casualties, it was the most deadly battle of the Cival War. General Robert E. Lee led the Confederate troops towards an attack on the Union Army that was led by George G. Meade. During this battle, the Union Army began with 97,000 men and the Southern troops started with 75,000 troops. This battle is a major turning point of the Civil War and greatly helped the
  • Battle of Gettysburg Pt. 2

    Battle of Gettysburg Pt. 2
    North's morale. The Confederate army, led by General Robert E. Lee led their second consecutive invasion of Northern lines. When the battle was over, there was an estimated 8,000 deaths and thousands of more injuries. The battle resulted in a victory for the Northern army.
  • Siege of Vicksburg

    Siege of Vicksburg
    The Siege of Vicksburg was an attack on the Vicksburg Fortress by General Ulysses S. Grant and his Union men. It lasted from May 18 until July 4. Maj. General Ulysses S. Grant led the Northern army and John C. Pemberton led the Confederate troops against them. Grant and his men surrounded the Southern troops and they succumbed to the Norths pressure. This was a very strategic plan because it cut the size and power of the Southern army in half.
  • Siege of Vicksburg Pt. 2

    Siege of Vicksburg Pt. 2
    The Union army outnumber the South by a ration of 3:1 and this was a big reason they succeeded in this campaign. General Ulysses S. Grant's success in this siege led to him later being named the Commander of the Union Army.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    The Gettysburg Address was a speech delivered by President Abraham Lincoln. It was given in Gettysburg, Pennyslvania, after the Battle of Gettysburg, which was a huge win and turning point for the Union. The speech was delivered at the National Cemetary that was the resting place of the thousands of soldiers killed just months before. This speech by Lincoln truly gave a purpose as to why the North was fighting. The Union was looking for renewed freedom and equality.
  • Gettysburg Address Pt. 2

    Gettysburg Address Pt. 2
    In his speech, Lincoln expressed the utmost respect and gratitude for these men who sacrificed their life for our great country. He wants to reinterated the Declaration of Independence by speaking of the government by the people, for the people.
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    The Election of 1864 was the Presidential Election between incumbent President Lincoln, and George B. McClellan. McClellan was Lincolns fomer top general for the Union, and they opposed each other on many aspects of politics and war. Linocln won 55% of the popular vote and an astounding 90% of the Electoral votes. Lincoln's running mate was Andrew Johnson, which is key because he ends up serving a majority of the remaining term after Lincoln is assassinated.
  • Election of 1864 Pt. 2

    Election of 1864 Pt. 2
    With Lincoln winning the election, this marked the first time since since Andrew Jackson was in office that a president has been elected to a second term in office. Lincoln won every states electoral vote except for Kentucky, New Jersey, and Delaware.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea

    Sherman's March to the Sea
    Shermans March to the Sea was a march from Atlanta towards Savannah, Georgia. This campaign was led by General William Tecumseh Sherman. The mission of this campaign was to capture the port city of Savannah and stop Southern business exports and imports. General Sherman was a proponent of total war, which meant complete and utter destruction of an area and leaving little remenants behind. The March to the Sea was the aftermath of the Atlanta Campaign, which was when Sherman and his men basically
  • Sherman's March to the Sea Pt. 2

    Sherman's March to the Sea Pt. 2
    burned down and torched the city of Atlanta. This march was 300 miles long and lasted around 35 days. It is said that Sherman's March killed the South's morale and sealed the Cival War victory for the Union.
  • Siege of Richmond

    Siege of Richmond
    The Siege of Richmond was a plan to attack Richmond, the capital of the CSA, by the Union Army. This plan was effective because it would effectively disable the South's power if the Union surrounded them and entrapped them. Even though Jefferson Davis and his close Cabinet members had already escaped from Virginia, the North could still entrap them and cut off the Confederate line of communication.
  • Siege of Richmond Pt. 2

    Siege of Richmond Pt. 2
    Grant's army won and overtook Richmond, and this eventually forced the surrender of the Confederacy and Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse. Richmond became the Achilles Heel of the South, effectively losing the war for them and crushing their spirits.
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia
    Appomattox Courthouse was the site of two major parts of Civil War History. It was the last battle of the Civil War and also the location where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union forces. The Confederate forces lost the battle after they were surrounded on three sides, which effectively shut them down and they were immobile. There were only 700 fatalities in this battle, a fairly small number for such a huge outcome. General Ulysses S. Grant, the commander of the Union was also present
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia Pt. 2

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia Pt. 2
    General Ulysses S. Grant, the commander of the Union, was also at the surrender. The surrender of the Confederacy effectively stopped their push to form a new southern country. They were forced to give their army to the Union. The Confederate States of America was effectively disbanded.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
    The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln was one of the major events in American History. It occured on April 14, 1865, right at the end of the Civil War. He was attending a play, Our American Cousin, with his wife, Major Henry Rathbone, and Clara Harris. He was sitting in an individual box when John Wilkes Booth, a pro-slave and pro-South actor burst in. He shot Lincoln one time in the back of the head and then jumped off of the stage.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Pt. 2

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Pt. 2
    Lincoln didn't die upon the initial gunshot but lost consciousness. He died the next morning after staying alive through the night. Abraham Lincoln was the first president to be assassinated while in office.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    The Freedman's Bureau was aimed at assisting newly freed slaves to succeed in the world. They were given monetary aid, land, and an early form of welfare. This bureau was created during the Reconstruction period after the Civil War. Another key service that it provided was reuniting families. Families got seperated in the slave trade and many children were torn from their families when they were as young as 10 years old.
  • Freedman's Bureau Pt. 2

    Freedman's Bureau Pt. 2
    Overall, the most important thing the Freedman's Bureau did was to provide an education for freed blacks. This was key because it helped slaves succeed and prosper because they could be as intelligent as their white neighbors. The bureau basically cared for ex-slaves after they had been released from inslavement.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th Amendment to the United States Constitution ended slavery and forced labor in the United States. This, along with the 14th Amendment made African Americans full United States citizens. It made all people in the United States theoretically "equal." This amendment took over a year and a half after it was proposed Senator John B. Henderson of Missouri.This amendment prohibited slavery throughout the United States, after the Emancipation Proclamtion ended slavery in the South.
  • 13th Amendment Pt. 2

    13th Amendment Pt. 2
    The 13th Amendment actually ended slavery by law while the Emancipation Proclamation was more of a good faith act and a symbol of Northern sympathy. The text of the amendment stated that Congress had the full power to enforce this amendment by whatever means possible.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution defined citizenship and the rights of a citizen. This amendment was a huge step for slave rights because it guaranteed citizenship to anyone born in the U.S. regardless of their parents citizenship. This was key because it made any offspring of a slave an automatic citizen. The outcome in this case overruled the one made in the Dred Scott Decision. This amendment made it where all people, not just white people had the same rights.
  • 14th Amendment Pt. 2

    14th Amendment Pt. 2
    This amendment also stated a voting age, twenty-one. The 14th protects a persons rights from being crossed by a state. This made it so that the federal government was more powerful than the states.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The 15th Amendment to the US Constitution was ratified in 1870 and is related to the 13th and 14th Amendment. It was used to further ensure that slaves had the same rights as white people. It says that even former slaves have the right to vote. This amendment was proposed by the outgoing Republicans of Congress to make sure everyone was equal.
  • 15th Amendment Pt. 2

    15th Amendment Pt. 2
    Even though voting was technically legal for all, it was still very limited. There were many groups, for example the Ku Klux Klan, who intimidated black voters and kept them in the house. Also, men were the only people who could still vote because women weren't granted the right to vote until 1920.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    The Election of 1876 was a presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden. This is considered one of the most corrupt elections and it was a very big fraud. Samuel J. Tilden won a majority of popular votes, and had a lead in Electoral Votes but Hayes was given 20 uncast votes from the Western states. It is regarded that the Democrats struck a deal with the Republicans to put Hayes in office. In exhange for the Republcans laying down and allowing Hayes into office,
  • Election of 1876 Pt. 2

    Election of 1876 Pt. 2
    the Democrats agreed to take their troops out of the South. This is referred to as the Compromise of 1877. This election marks the first time in 24 years that a Democrat was elected as President of the United States of America. To this day, this is the only Presidential Election where the person who received more popular votes did not win the Presidency.