Civil War Project APUSH

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In History
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a vast system of people and places that were willing to help escaped African-Americans on their way to freedom. It worked by having people throughout the South and some places in the North hang a light in their front window, a sign that the house was friendly to slaves, and giving the escaped slaves a place to sleep and eat for a night or two before they were on their way again.
  • Underground Rairoad Part 2

    Underground Rairoad Part 2
    The first recognition of the system was by George Washington in 1786 when he stated that one of his runaway slaves was helped by a series of Quakers, formed for that such purpose. It wasn’t officially named the Underground Railroad until around 1831. It got its name from the jargon used within; places they would go were stations, people who led it were conductors, people who supplied food and goods were stockholders, and people who operated the stations were called stationmasters.
  • Underground Railroad Part 3

    Underground Railroad Part 3
    The estimated number of slaves who escaped via the Underground Railroad is around 100,000. The most famous conductor of the railroad was Harriet Tubman. She herself saved over 300 slaves from the abominable cruelty.
  • Period: to

    Events Leading up to the Civil War

  • Invention of the Cotton Gin

    Invention of the Cotton Gin
    The Cotton Gin is a machine, invented by Eli Whitney, which separates the cotton fibers from the seeds within the fibers. It was invented sometime in 1793 and Eli Whitney filed for a patent on October 28, 1793. Before its invention, raising cotton was only cost effective on large plantations that had an enormous amount of slave labor.
  • Invention of the cotton Gin Part 2

    Invention of the cotton Gin Part 2
    With the introduction of the Cotton Gin, raising cotton became a less labor intensive job because it reduced the amount of man-power and time it took to fully prepare a crop of cotton for sale. The Cotton Gin created an increase in the need of slave labor because the amount of cotton that was being planted and harvested was not able to keep up with the production of cotton. The solution, slaveholders purchased more slaves that planted and harvested more cotton.
  • Missouri Compromise

    Missouri Compromise
    The Missouri Compromise (or Compromise of 1820) was formed to settle the topic of the admittance of Slave and Free states. The balance between free and slave states had been maintained ever since the revolutionary war, There were 11 slave states and 11 free states. When Missouri petitioned to become a state, the problem of whether to admit it as free or slave presented its self.
  • Missouri Compromise Part 2

    Missouri Compromise Part 2
    One Representative proposed an amendment that would ban slavery in Missouri, even though there were already 2,000 slaves living there at the time. After much deliberation a consensus was reached after Maine petitioned to become a state; Missouri would be admitted as a slave state, and Maine free, and all states North of Missouri’s southern border (36° 30′) would be free, and all states below would be slave.
  • Missouri Compromise Part 3

    Missouri Compromise Part 3
    The compromise also stated that to maintain balance after every free state admitted, a slave state must be admitted. This compromise, presented by Henry Clay, would solve the issue of the admittance of states into the Union for years to come until repealed in 1854.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    In 1846 an amendment was presented to the US House of Representatives during the Mexican War. It was brought forth by President Polk asking for an allowance of $2 million to negotiate a settlement with Mexico over territory ownership. Afterwards, David Wilmot presented an amendment to the bill insisting that none of the territory taken in the Mexican War should take part in slavery.
  • Wilmot Proviso Part 2

    Wilmot Proviso Part 2
    The bill was amended and passed in the House, but the Senate session came to a close without casting any votes on the issue. During the next session of Congress (1847), a new bill was introduced asking for a $3 million allowance was introduced, and Wilmot continued to propose the antislavery amendment as previous. The amended bill passed the House, but the Senate drew up its own bill, which took away the condition.
  • Wilmot Proviso Part 3

    Wilmot Proviso Part 3
    The Wilmot Proviso formed a great deal of animosity between the North and the South. The Wilmot Proviso also helped to work away the conflict over slavery. During the election of 1848 the conditions of the Wilmot Proviso were overlooked by the Whig and the Democratic parties but were agreed to by the Free-Soil party then later by the Republican Party.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    The compromise of 1850 was a series of bills, written by The Great Compromiser (Henry Clay) and announced by Daniel Webster since Claw was ill, that would try to bring peace to the sectional issues between the North and the South. The first part of the compromise was the matter of Slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico.
  • Compromise 1850 Part 2

    Compromise 1850 Part 2
    The compromise stated that the territories would choose for themselves; this was a win for both the North and South because it couldn’t be influenced by Senators and House Representatives. The next topic in the compromise was the end of the Slave-trade in Washington D.C.; this would tip the scale in favor of the North.
  • Compromise of 1850 Part 3

    Compromise of 1850 Part 3
    The next topic in the compromise was Texas, some of the land that comprised Texas would be taken by the government, but Texas was given $10 million to pay its debt to Mexico; this was a win for the South balancing the scale of power. The next big topic in the compromise was the admittance of California to the Union.
  • Compromise of 1850 Part 4

    Compromise of 1850 Part 4
    The compromise said that the territory, since it has boomed in population, would be admitted to the Union, but as a free state; this would once again tip the scales in favor of the North. The last, and most controversial, part of the compromise was the Fugitive-Slave Act. This act was included not only to rebalance the power between the North and South.
  • Compromise of 1850 Part 5

    Compromise of 1850 Part 5
    It was also drafted to placate the South because of the admittance of California as a free state; the Fugitive-Slave Act would be a significant win for the South.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. It was written to “make this whole nation feel what an accursed thing slavery is.” The story follows two slaves (Tom and 4 year old Harry) and their families (Tom’s three children and Harry’s mother). The book was based on the memoirs of Rev. Josiah Henson. His life experiences are what inspired Stowe to write the novel. The book gained popularity with the North and the lower-class in Great Britain.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin Part 2

    Uncle Tom's Cabin Part 2
    The book, however, was banned in the south due to the fact that it spoke against slavery. It was accepted most widely by ex-slaves and black abolitionists. One of the most famous was Fredrick Douglass, he supported her in getting it published and even consulted with her on the book.
  • Caning of Charles Sumner

    Caning of Charles Sumner
    On May 22, 1856, a member of the US House of Representatives came into the Senate chamber and violently beat a senator until he was unconscious. Just three days earlier, Senator Charles Sumner spoke to the Senate about allowing Kansas, to be admitted into the Union as a slave state or a slave-free state. While giving his “Crimes Against Kansas” speech, Sumner called out Andrew Butler, calling Douglas a “noise-some, squat, and nameless animal...
  • Caning of Charles Sumner Part 2

    Caning of Charles Sumner Part 2
    ...not proper model for an American Senator” and of Butler who wasn’t even there, accused him of taking “a mistress…who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world is chaste in his sight—I mean the harlot, Slavery” With this said aloud, Preston Brooks who was related to Butler decided that since he was such a southern gentleman, a light cane that would be used to discipline misbehaving dogs would be in order. He entered the chamber where he found...
  • Caning of Charles Sumner Part 3

    Caning of Charles Sumner Part 3
    ...Sumner and had at it on Sumner’s head. The attack lasted only about a minute, but Sumner was taken away unconscious and bleeding while Brooks left calmly. After the Brooks broke his cane on Sumner's head, people from the south sent him new ones engraved with, "Hit Him Again."
  • Dred-Scott Decision

    Dred-Scott Decision
    The Dred Scott Decision was named after an African-American slave taken by his master from the slave state of Missouri to live in Illinois which, a slave-free state, and later to the slave-free territory of Wisconsin, but returned to Missouri when his master was ordered to return and he took Scott with him. Later in 1846, Scott was helped by Abolitionist, or anti-slavery, lawyers during a legal battle suing for his freedom, arguing that he should be free since he had previously lived on free...
  • Dred-Scott Decision Part 2

    Dred-Scott Decision Part 2
    soil for an extended time. The case was heard in the US Supreme Court by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney who just so happened to be a former slave owner. March 1857 Dred Scott lost his case based on the decision that no slave or descendant of a slave was able to be a US citizen and as a non-citizen, Scott had no rights and was unable to sue for them in a Federal Court, therefore he must remain a slave. The court also found that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
  • Dred-Scott Decision

    Dred-Scott Decision
    Though there were five slave-free states where African-American men were now even allowed to vote, this decision was a huge step backwards for their freedom. With the Dred Scott decision, the distance between the North and the South widened both politically and socially.
  • Lincoln-Douglass Debates

    Lincoln-Douglass Debates
    The Lincoln-Douglass Debates were a series of seven political debates, for the state Senate seat, throughout Illinois. The debates ranged in size from small crowds to crowds over 15,000 people. In these debates Douglass characterized Lincoln as a Radical Republican who wanted civil war and for blacks to be seen as equal as whites. Lincoln countered saying that he supported the Fugitive-Slave Act and thought that slavery should be left alone and stay within its present boarders.
  • Lincoln-Douglass Debates Part 2

    Lincoln-Douglass Debates Part 2
    The two candidates presented immensely different views of the slave issue; Lincoln said that slavery was an institution hungry for new land to sink its teeth into, while Douglass said that it should be allowed to expand and it couldn’t survive within its present borders. At one particular debate in Freeport, Illinois, Lincoln asked Douglass to reconcile the Supreme Court’s decision in the Dred-Scott case.
  • Lincoln-Douglass Debates Part 3

    Lincoln-Douglass Debates Part 3
    Douglass replied with, later known as the Freeport Doctrine, “Slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere, unless it is supported by local police regulations.” The question put Douglass into a situation where he would either loose the Free-Soiler vote or the Pro-Slavery Southerner vote. Douglass won reelection, but the debates put Lincoln in the national spotlight and made him a likely candidate for the Presidential Election of 1860.
  • Raid on Harper's Ferry

    Raid on Harper's Ferry
    On October 16, 1859 John Brown, a devoted abolitionist, along with a group of his most loyal supporters left their farmhouse hide-out on their way to Harpers Ferry. As they came upon the town in the early hours of October 17th, Brown and his men captured important, well-known citizens, seizing the federal armory and arsenal. Brown was hoping the local slave population would join them during the raid. If the raid was successful, weapons would then be given to slaves and freedom fighters around..
  • Raid on Harper's Ferry Part 2

    Raid on Harper's Ferry Part 2
    ...the country. But it never quite happened this way. First, they were held back by the local armed force on the morning of the 17th. So Brown sought shelter in the arsenal’s engine house, but this didn’t last for very long. Later that same day, US Marines under direction of Colonel Robert E. Lee arrived and stormed the engine house, killing many of Brown’s troops and captured Brown. Brown was placed on trial, charged with treason against the state of Virginia, murder, and slave mutiny.
  • Raid on Harper's Ferry Part 3

    Raid on Harper's Ferry Part 3
    He was sentenced to death and hanged December 2, 1859.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    Lincoln took the Republican lead from the initial front runner William Seward in Chicago during the 1860 May primary. Other nominees were Stephen Douglas who was nominated by the Democrats, John Breckinridge who was nominated by the Southern Democrats who also called themselves the National Democrats, and John Bell nominated by the Constitutional Union Party. The Republicans were opposed to slavery and the Dred-Scott Decision, but also upheld the rights to slavery in the south.
  • Election of 1860 Part 2

    Election of 1860 Part 2
    Lincoln was supported by the republicans while the other candidates were split with support by region. Most of the campaign was run by the party organizations while the candidates did very little of the work. Stephen Douglass was the first presidential candidate to go on a speaking tour. He travelled to the South, not expecting many, if any, votes. The election was between Lincoln and Douglass in the North and West, while it was between Breckinridge and Bell in the South.
  • Formation of The Confederate States of America

    Formation of The Confederate States of America
    The Confederate States of America (CSA) formed shortly after the election of President Lincoln. The secession of the South started with South Carolina. South Carolina threatened to secede if Lincoln was elected president and true to their word, on December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded. Shortly after South Carolina seceded, other states followed suit and met in Montgomery, Alabama on March 4, 1861. There they drafted a constitution of their own and declared independence from the Union.
  • Formation of The Confederate States of America Part 2

    Formation of The Confederate States of America Part 2
    The original seven states that seceded were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. After the attack on Fort Sumter; Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded. These states then elected Jefferson Davis as their president and made Richmond, Virginia their Capitol. Had Lincoln not suspended the Writ of Habeas Corpus and allowed Maryland to keep their slaves,
  • Formation of The Confederate States of America Part 3

    Formation of The Confederate States of America Part 3
    it too would have become a Confederate State and the Confederacy would have surrounded Washington D.C.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    The onslaught of Fort Sumter was the beginning of the American Civil War. The Battle of Fort Sumter led to the United States' deadliest war, even though a mule was its only fatality. On April 10, 1861, while commanding the makeshift Confederate armies at Charleston, South Carolina, Brig. Gen. Beauregard demanded the surrender of the Union garrison of Fort Sumter. Garrison commander Anderson would have no part of this and on April 12, Confederate forces opened fire on the fort.
  • Fort Sumter Part 2

    Fort Sumter Part 2
    When they were unable to fight back with any positive results, Major Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter on April 13. They promptly withdrew from the garrison the very next day securing the Confederate victory.
  • Period: to

    Civil War

  • First Battle of Bull Run

    First Battle of Bull Run
    On July 21, 1861, Union and Confederate armies came to blows near Manassas Junction, Virginia. This would become the first major land battle of the American Civil War. The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as the Battle of Manassas, was started when more than 30,000 Union troops marched to the river of Bull Run from Washington, D.C. to attack a Confederate power of approximately 20,000. After a day-long fight, the rebel forces were able to come together and break the Union strong-hold.
  • First Battle of Bull Run Part 2

    First Battle of Bull Run Part 2
    This sent the Federals soldiers into a frenzied withdraw back to Washington. This Confederate victory gave the South a sudden burst of confidence and took many of those in the North by surprise. This also made the North realized that the war would be more difficult than they anticipated.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    The first day of the Battle of Shiloh began April 6, 1862. General Johnston pulled back his Confederate troops to West Tennessee and Northern Alabama to reorganize as a result of the loss of Fort Henry and Donelson. General Grant would refuse to accept the idea of a Confederate assault and was directed to move south in a combined offensive to take the Memphis & Charleston Railroad which happened to be the Confederacy’s single east-west year-round way to get supplies from the lower Mississippi..
  • Battle of Shiloh Part 2

    Battle of Shiloh Part 2
    ...Valley to the cities on the Confederacy’s east coast. Prior to this offensive, with the help of General Beauregard, Johnston moved purposefully his armies, concentrating them centrally where the Memphis & Charleston Railroad crossed the Mobile & Ohio Railroad in a small area called Corinth which happened to be the Confederacy’s most essential rail junction. But on April 6, a small Federal scouting group stumbled upon Johnston’s army posted and waiting for battle near the Corinth road and as..
  • Battle of Shiloh Part 3

    Battle of Shiloh Part 3
    ...Johnston and his men proceeded forward, they were able to take Federal soldiers almost completely by surprise, almost guaranteeing them victory. But Johnston didn’t count on the strong will to fight by the Federals. The fight finally slowed down in front of Sarah Bell’s peach orchard and the thick oak trees called the “hornet’s nest” by the Confederates. The fight carried on for seven hours before Grant was driven back and thought they received many casualties, the Confederates forced Grant..
  • Battle of Shiloh Part 4

    Battle of Shiloh Part 4
    ...the river rather than away. General Johnston was killed in this battle. On April 7, Grant and his troops came alive again and began to launch a counterattack surprising General Beauregard. Because of the previous days casualties and the surprise of the attack, Beauregard was able to crudely pull together approximately 30,000 of his confused and wounded soldiers, resulting in an offensive that was able to slow down the Union advance. But Grant was able to pull him and his troops together...
  • Battle of Shiloh Part 5

    Battle of Shiloh Part 5
    ...forcing Beauregard and his muddled troops back to the Shiloh Church, ordering a retreat. That night, the Confederates withdrew and possession of the battlefield was given to the Union.
  • Battle of Antietam

    Battle of Antietam
    The battle of Antietam was fought on September 16, 1863. It was fought by Union Forces led by McClellan and Confederate forces led by Robert E. Lee. McClellan’s plan was to attack the left side of the Confederate forces for a while, and then attack the right side, catching them off guard. The repeated Union attacks followed by the repeated confederate attacks, helped create the bloodiest one-day-battle in American history.
  • Battle of Antietam Part 2

    Battle of Antietam Part 2
    Stonewall’s forces held their positions during the war, but at the sunken road, the confederate forces were taken by the union and infiltrate their center. Later that day Maj. Gen. Burnside’s men pushed across the Antietam Bridge and managed to take the confederate right. The confederate division from Harper’s Ferry had just arrived shortly after and pushed Burnside and his men back. Even though the battle was technically a draw, Lincoln and other Union leaders claimed it as a victory.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    President Lincoln believed that slaves should be freed, but they needed to be freed gradually. Ever since the early parts of his presidency, Lincoln was trying to convince legislators to gradually free slaves. In an attempt to gain support, he proposed that slaveholders, whom freed their slaves, be compensated. In September of 1862, after winning the Battle at Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation proclamation.
  • Emancipation Proclamation Part 2

    Emancipation Proclamation Part 2
    He stated that unless the succeeded states returned to the Union by January 1st of the following year, all slaves within those states would be freed. No Confederate states took the offer so on January 1st 1863, Lincoln proclaimed, “all persons held as slaves within any States, or designated part of the State, the people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free.”
  • Siege At Vicksburg Part 2

    Siege At Vicksburg Part 2
    ...the Confederacy was able to divide and conquer. This battle was one of the first successes leading to Grants appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.
  • Siege At Vicksburg

    Siege At Vicksburg
    The Siege of Vicksburg was a battle lasting from May 19-July 4, 1863 and is known as a major turning point of the American Civil War. Maj. Gen U.S. Grant was able to gather his troops and take Vicksburg by surrounding a small Confederate army led by Lt. Gen John Pemberton. Vicksburg eventually surrendered on July 4, 1863 after a long battle. Again, this was a high point of one of the most pivotal battles of the Civil War. Now that Pemberton had lost its position on the river of the Mississippi..
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg was the deadliest battle in the Civil War. The battle started on July 1, 1863. The battle lasted for 3 days and had over 28,000 casualties (dead, wounded, and missing) for the Confederacy and 23,000 for the Union. The battle began when Confederate forces fired on Union Cavalry at McPherson Ridge. The first day of the battle the Union Army was outnumbered and managed to hold off the Confederates for a short while, but they were slowly overwhelmed.
  • Battle of Gettysburg part 2

    Battle of Gettysburg part 2
    By the second day, the two forces formed two sweeping arches nearly a mile apart. James Longstreet broke through the Union’s southern flank and turned Wheatfield and Plum Run into Bloody Run. In the North, the confederate attack proved futile against the entrenched union forces. Come day 3, Lee decided to attack at the center of the Union mass. The rifle and cannon fire was accomplishing little, so George E. Pickett decided to take his men and march to the center.
  • Battle of Gettysburg part 3

    Battle of Gettysburg part 3
    After taking rifle and cannon fire, Pickett made it to the center but failed. This became known as Pickett’s Charge.
  • Gettysburg Address

    Gettysburg Address
    Probably the most famous battle of the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, took place July 1-3, 1863 and after the Union’s Army was victorious, President Abraham Lincoln traveled to Gettysburg to dedicate a new cemetery for the many dead Union soldiers. He spoke of a “new birth of freedom” delivering what some describe as one of the most infamous speeches in US history.
  • Gettysburg Address Part 2

    Gettysburg Address Part 2
    At the conclusion of the Battle of Gettysburg, the wounded, dead or mission totaled over 51,000 Confederate and Union soldiers. As the dead were placed in make-shift graves along side of the road, Penn Gov Andrew Curtin commissioned Atty David Willis to purchase a plot of land to build a cemetery to honor these who gave their lives. The cemetery was dedicated November 19, 1863 and President Lincoln was invited to speak as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds...
  • Gettysburg Address Part 3

    Gettysburg Address Part 3
    ...to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks. He spoke for a mere two minutes. Though the speech was short, intense meaning was placed upon each and every word, giving meaning to the coincidence that the Unions victory at Gettysburg just so happened to occur on our nation’s birthday, July 4. But instead of dwelling on the many wins and losses of the war, he chose to look at the bigger picture, calling out the Declaration of Independence, and stressing its primary purposes of...
  • Gettysburg Address Part 4

    Gettysburg Address Part 4
    ...life, liberty and equality among men. He talked about the “new birth of freedom” for this new nation and with this speech was able to refocus the efforts of the war for the American people.
  • Seige of Richmond

    Seige of Richmond
    The Siege of Richmond, more commonly known as the Siege of Petersburg or the Richmond-Petersburg Campaign, was started in June 1864. Dates often vary, but most often are documented as June 9, 1864. This was one of the final battles of the east of the confederacy during the American Civil War.. It began on June 1864, with a main objective being to take control of the Richmond/Petersburg area—Virginia's second largest area and a primary supply location for the Confederate capital at Richmond.
  • Seige of Richmond Part 2

    Seige of Richmond Part 2
    The campaign included corresponding battles north of the James River and was ultimately linked to the corresponding military actions in other locations, including and most importantly in the Shenandoah Valley. Under the direction of Ulysses S. Grand, Union armies failed to take control of Petersburg from June 15 to 18 or on July 30, after the Battle of the Crater, where a mine was exploded under the Confederate directions.
  • Seige of Richmond Part 3

    Seige of Richmond Part 3
    The Southern military forces led by Robert E. Lee, supported by an highly structured plan of field defenses, stretched thirty-seven miles, eventually led to the surrendering the city's supply lines to a series of Grant's offensives. Grant finally destroyed Lee's defenses on April 2, 1865, leading to the evacuation of Richmond and Petersburg.
  • Election of 1864

    Election of 1864
    During the United States Presidential election of 1864, Abraham Lincoln was re-elected as President of the United States and was one of the most important elections in American history. He campaigned under the National Union party against his former Civil War general, the Democratic candidate, George B. McClellan. McClellan was considered the "peace candidate" but did not actually believe in the message his party was campaigning.
  • Election of 1864 Part 2

    Election of 1864 Part 2
    The primary platform for the election would decide the preservation of slavery. Since the election of 1864 took place during the Civil War; not one of the states loyal to the Confederate States of America chose to participate. During the election, Lincoln pointed out that over 130,000 blacks were fighting to save the union and were motivated by “the strongest motive…the promise of freedom. There have been men who proposed to me to return to slavery the black warriors. I would be damned in...
  • Election of 1864 Part 3

    Election of 1864 Part 3
    ...time and in eternity for so doing. The world shall know that I will keep my faith to friends and enemies, come what will” Republicans loyal to Lincoln joined with a number of War Democrats to form the National Union Party and moved forward to nominate Andrew Johnson as Vice President. This worked well because this same group was opposed to a group of Republican protesters who decided for their nominee to be John C. Frémont,
  • Election of 1864 Part 4

    Election of 1864 Part 4
    This new political party was formed to make provisions for the War Democrats. On November 8, Lincoln won by well over 400,000 popular votes, easily taking the electoral majority. Several states allowed their citizens serving as soldiers in the field to cast ballots, a first in United States history. Soldiers in the Army gave Lincoln more than 70% of their vote. Lincoln's second term ended just 6 weeks after inauguration with him being assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea"

    Sherman's "March to the Sea"
    On November 15, 1864, General Sherman’s March to the Sea was started in an effort to split the Confederacy in half. Sherman's march destroyed any military goods, rail tracks and telegraph lines available. As well, they destroyed or confiscated any and all supplies such as food, ammunition and horses. Along the way they developed a new strategy that Sherman felt would be the quickest way to bring the confederacy to its knees. By attacking the civilian infrastructure that supported the...
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea" Part 2

    Sherman's "March to the Sea" Part 2
    ..Confederate armies in the field it was sure to happen. By destroying farms and railroads, Sherman could deprive the troops of food and supplies, while at the same time punishing the Georgians for seceding from the Union. It shortened the war by months, with almost no casualties. General Sherman's March to the Sea involved his army going through Georgia destroying and burning Southern properties. His men were spread 40-60 miles in width. The main logic behind this was to make the South weaker..
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea" Part 3

    Sherman's "March to the Sea" Part 3
    ...and for them to panic. Like the Shenandoah, Georgia consisted of fertile farmland that had enjoyed a good harvest. Sherman's army could easily live off the land, destroying anything they couldn't use, and generally following Grant's instructions to "Make Georgia howl!" This campaign involved very few casualties on either side, and Sherman had strictly forbid violence against civilians. When violence did occur, it was usually not by his own men, but by the many vagabonds who followed his...
  • Sherman's "March to the Sea" Part 4

    Sherman's "March to the Sea" Part 4
    ...army for the leftovers. The end of the march was Savannah, occupied by a small Confederate army under Hardee, and it looked as though that beautiful city might be torn down in a big battle. But Hardee and a small number of soldiers escaped across the river into South Carolina, and Sherman followed him. Because there were too few Confederates there to pose any threat to Sherman, the fight left a bad taste in the mouths of the Georgians. Sherman’s March to the Sea ended December 22, 1864.
  • Freedman's Bureau

    Freedman's Bureau
    Created by Congress and directed by the War Department in March 1865, the Freedman’s Bureau was designed to assist the Southern Blacks and Whites to make the transition from a society based on slavery to a society that allowed on freedom, or somewhat of a social reconstruction between blacks and whites . Its first commissioner was General O.O. Howard, a Civil war hero who was sympathetic to the blacks. Its responsibilities included introducing a system of free trade,...
  • Freedman's Bureau Part 2

    Freedman's Bureau Part 2
    ...overseeing schools designed for the freedpersons and settling disputes and resolving contracts between the newly freedmen and white land owners. Their biggest job though was to ensure justice for the blacks within the justice system. The Bureau was renewed in 1866 by a Congressional bill, but President Andrew Johnson was opposed to allowing the federal government provide rights to the blacks, he vetoed the bill, saying it was unconstitutional for blacks to have rights.
  • Freedman's Bureau Part 3

    Freedman's Bureau Part 3
    The veto was over-ridden by Congress. Because the Southern whites also felt the blacks should have no rights, the Bureau found it difficult to find any military body to stand behind them. Though they were weak, the Bureau was able to successfully provide educational opportunities to many of the blacks, establishing several colleges and institutions for higher learning catering to the black community. Though its purpose was positive, the Bureau failed at bringing together the blacks and whites...
  • Freedman's Bureau Part 4

    Freedman's Bureau Part 4
    ...in the south because of a lack of support from both Northern and Southern politicians. The Freedman’s Bureau ended its operation in 1872.
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia
    At the Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia, the last battle of the Civil war was fought. The battle was between Union forces led by Ulysses S. Grant, and Confederate Forces led by Robert E. Lee. The battle took place in early April 9, 1865. The battle resulted in almost 700 casualties, many of which were Confederate Soldiers. The battle was a victory for the Union. General Lee, after the battle, surrenders to Grant by signing an unconditional treaty the same day.
  • Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia Part 2

    Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia Part 2
    Thus officially declaring the Union the victor of the war.
  • Period: to

    Reconstruction

  • Assasination of Abraham Lincoln

    Assasination of Abraham Lincoln
    On April 14, 1865, while attending a play, “Our American Cousin,” at Ford’s Theater, President Lincoln was shot in the back of the head by John Wilkes Booth. After firing the shot, Henry R. Rathbone, who was attending the play with the president, lunged at Booth, who had a dagger, and slashed his arm open. Booth then leaped from the balcony and got his boot spur caught on the flag draped over the rail, shattering the bone in his leg.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Part 2

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Part 2
    Booth then proceeded to escape town on horseback, but was later caught hiding in a barn. After his assassination, bills that he had proposed, such as the 13th amendment, were passed by congress much easier than they were before his assassination. Many people were hurt by the cowardly murder of Lincoln, but, hurt almost as much as Lincoln’s family, Walt Whitman was deeply hurt.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Part 3

    Assassination of Abraham Lincoln Part 3
    The death of Lincoln caused Whitman to stop writing with the subject of himself, and started to write with Lincoln as the subject, whether stated blatantly or not. Some of Whitman’s most famous works, other than “Leaves of Grass” were about Lincoln, and, by far the most famous, were “O Captain, My Captain” and “When Lilacs Last In The Door-Yard Bloom’d.”
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The 13th amendment was passed by congress on January 31, 1865 and ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. The amendment to the constitution abolished slavery in the United States and all places where the US has jurisdiction. The 13th amendment was the official end to slavery in the United States. While the emancipation proclamation ended slavery for states in rebellion against the union, which the South didn’t abide, the 13th amendment was written for the whole country.
  • 14th Amendment

    14th Amendment
    The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was passed by Congress on June 13, 1866 and later ratified on July 9, 1868. It granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed. As well, it forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Many of the southern states refused to ratify the 14th Amendment..
  • 14th Amendment Part 2

    14th Amendment Part 2
    causing many deep-seated Republicans to urge the passing of further legislation to impose these actions on the former Confederacy. All of this aggression lead to the 1867 Reconstructions Acts, dividing the South into five military areas managed by martial law. This also declared universal manhood suffrage & required the new state constitutions to be formed.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The 15th Amendment was ratified on February 3, 1870. Its purpose was to grant African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Though it was ratified years earlier, the rights of the 15th Amendment would not be become real for almost one hundred years.
  • 15th Amendment Part 2

    15th Amendment Part 2
    The Southern states were able to discredit African-American citizens by using such things as poll taxes and literacy test. It wouldn’t’ be until 1965 with the passing of the Voting Rights Act that the majority of African-Americans would be able to cast their first ballot as a registered voter.
  • Election of 1876

    Election of 1876
    The Election of 1876 was between three candidates: Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican), Samuel J. Tilden (Democrat), and Peter Cooper (Greenback). The election was about regaining the public’s trust after the Grant-Era Corruptions. The corruptions included the Black Friday Scandal, in which Grant’s brother-in-law and a few others bought a vast amount of gold sending the price skyrocketing, and then intending to sell it.
  • Election of 1876 Part 2

    Election of 1876 Part 2
    Also there was the Whiskey Ring, where whiskey taxes were so high that distilling companies bribed the treasury and got tax stamps at a fraction of the face value. The election results came down to Hayes getting 185 electoral votes, Tilden with 184, and Cooper with none, but Tilden had won the popular vote. There were 20 disputed votes so Congress set up an “impartial” electoral commission, comprised of five senators, five house representatives and five Supreme Court justices.
  • Election of 1876 part 3

    Election of 1876 part 3
    In turn there were 7 Democrats, 7 Republicans, and 1 independent. The independent took an open seat in the senate so he was replaced by a Republican, winning Grant the vote of 8-7. The proceedings were rigged however, due to the compromise of 1877; saying that the Republicans could have the presidential office: as long as they withdrew from the south, enacted federal legislation that industrialized the south, appointed democrats to patronage positions in the south, and
  • Election of 1876 Part 4

    Election of 1876 Part 4
    appointed a democrat to the presidential cabinet.