Civil War Era

By ang5305
  • Mexican Cession

    At the end of the Mexican War, when the U.S. won, the Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago was signed in which Mexico gave up the lang of Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada, Nevada, Colorado, and mosty importantly California to the United States. This, along with the addition of Texas to the U.S, was a huge factor in causing tensions between the North and South. The South wanted slavery in the new territiory while the North wanted it to be free. This struggle just intensified the fight over slavery.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    This act was a passed by congress for the second time as part of the Compromise of 1850. As the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793 was not strictly enforced in the North, this act was much stricter in order to please the South who had been upset at the lax enforcement previously. It included much harsher punishments and aimed to end the Underground Railroad.
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    This was an anti-slvary book published by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a white woman of the North. It revealed the true horrors of slavery to many Northerners and outraged the south. This book was one of the main causes of the Civil War because it convinced much of the North to fight against the slavery and served as a major political force.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    This act repealed the Missouri Compromise by stating that states would decide if territory would be free or anti-slavery by popular soveregnty instead of the 36 30 line. This upset the North because Kansas, which would have been a free state under the Missouri Compromise could now possibly be pro-slavery. It also created a civil war within Kansas between anti and pro slavery forces which was a cause of the nation's Civil War.
  • Formation of the Republican Party

    The Republican Party formed formed from a mixture of Whigs, Know Nothings, and Free Soilers. The were pro industrialism, tariffs, internal improvements, and anti-slavery. This political party produced Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860 and becames a force of the North to rival the Democrats of the South.
  • Sumner-Brooks Affair

    Charles Sumner was a member of the Senate and Radical Republican Party. He gave an intense speech criticizing the Kansas-Nebraska Act and one of it's authors, Andrew Butler, infuriating the South. Andrew Brooks, a relative of Butler and member of the House, was especially angry and beat Sumner with his cane in the Senate chamber, severly crippling him. This represents the violence that occured due to tensions of the North and South and led to the Civil War.
  • Dred Scott Decision

    After his owner died, a slave named Dred Scott sued to gain his freedom because he lived in a free territory. However the courts did not rule in his favor. They also ruled that slaves were not citizens but viewed as property and that this meant slaves could be taken anywhere, even free territory, and still be in bondage because the 4th ammendment protects citizen's rights to property. This was significant because it esentially made slavery legal in all states which greatly angered the North.
  • Lincoln Douglas Debates

    Abraham Lincoln challenged Stephan Douglas to a series of 7 debates when they were both running of Senator of Illinois. Douglas ended up winning and winning the positions also. Lincoln however gained popularity which put him in a position to be elected as president 2 years later.
  • John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry

    John Brown, a radial abolitionist, led a raid on Harper's Ferry. He planned to steal weapons from the militray arsenal and give them to slaves to enable them to lead a rebellion. However he was caught and stopped by General Robert E. Lee. This signifies the radical measures both abolitionist and slavery supporters would go to.
  • Lincoln Elected President

    In the election of 1860 had 4 candidates: Breckinridge for the Southern Democrats, Douglas for the Norther Democrats, Bell for the Constitutional Union, and Lincoln for the Republicans who won with a total of 180 electoral votes. This was hugly significant in starting the Civil War because it was the last straw before the southern states started to secede. They couldn't stand to be under a president that was outspoken in his determinaiton to end slavery.
  • Battle of Bull Run

    The Union was on the offense and attacked the Confederate Army in Manassas Junction, Virginia near the small river of Bull Run. Even though the Unionist greatly outnumbered the Confederates, the Southerners were still able to pull a victory by fighting back and forcing the North to retreat back to Washington. This was the first major land battle of the Civil War and gave the South confidence while proving to the North the war wouldn’t so easily be won.
  • Battle of Antietam

    The Union Army under General Hooker attacked the confederates. The confederates would counterattack and this continued all day before the South finally had to start retreating because their smaller numbers could not hold off the greater Union Army forever. General Hooker did not utilize his full army and didn’t follow the Confederates after they started to retreat. Therefore there wasn’t a clear victor.
  • Emmancipation Proclamation

    Issued by Lincoln, this proclamation freed all slaves in the south. It did not free slaves in the border states, however, because Lincoln could not risk upsetting them and having them side with the confederacy. Since the southern states had already formed the Confederacy they did not follow this law.
  • Battle of Fredericksburg

    Led by General Burnside, the Union launched several attacks on Prospect Hill and Marye’s Heights. General Meade led the left flank of the Union army and only temporarily broke confederate lines before being driven back. Eventually the Union Army was forced to fully retreat and left empty handed, their goal of moving south not achieved, resulting in a Confederate victory. This battle is significant because it was unsuccessful in moving troops south so they couldn't take the South'capital.
  • Battle of Chancellorsville

    This battle was fought in Spotsylvania County, Virginia by General Lee and General Hooker. The confederates won due to Lee's risky but effective move of splitting up his army and Hooker's poor leadership skills. It held the second bloodiest day of the Civil War
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    General Lee led his troops into Virginia where they met the Union’s Army of Potomac led by General Meade. The battle lasted from July 1st to 3rd 1863 and ended when Lee’s attack of the Union forces on the 3rd known as “Pickett’s Charge” failed. The confederates were forced to retreat and the Unionist were the victors.This was seen as the turning point of the war and when the South realized they would no longer be able to force their way into the North.
  • Battle of Vicksburg

    Under General Grant, Union forces tried to capture Vicksburg, using troops on land and in the water. They finally put a siege on the whole city which contained the Confederate troops. This long siege was effective and finally the Confederates were forced to surrender after suffering major losses. This was a huge victory for the Union because it gave the North control of the Mississippi River, split the South in half, and convinced Lincoln to promote General Grant to commander in chief.
  • Wade Davis Bill

    This was a reconstruction bill proposed by radical Republicans Wade and Davis which was passed while the Civil War was still occuring but it was probable the Union would win. Lincoln did not agree with this plan, but his 10 percent idea which was more lenient. Lincoln vetoed the bill causing Wade and Davis much anger.
  • Sherman's March to the Sea

    General Sherman of the Union, after capturing Atlanta, Georgia, marched to Savannah, burning everything in his path. He ended with capturing the port of Savannah. This devestated a large area in Georgia and left the south with major economic and tranportational consequences.
  • Surrender at the Appomattox Courthouse

    After seeing that he was overpowered, General Lee of the Confederacy surrendered to General Grant. Lee signed surrender documents at the McLean home nextdoor to the court house. This signified the end of the Civil War and started the series of other surrenders by the south.