By a001939

    Between the 17th and 18th century, the Smallpox epidemic was expanding quickly through the west and Europe. People were getting really sick and scarred, so Lady Mary Wortley decided to use her medical knowledge and developed the smallpox vaccine. Her invention was super good because the epidemic stopped some time later. This contribution has helped everyone because anyone can get smallpox. Now, the vaccine formula changed and improved.

    We breathe it all the time, we use it to create other substances, and it's very important for life: Oxygen. It was discovered by the scientist Joseph Priestley, with an experiment that led him to this. His contribution is important because if it wasn't thanks to it, we would have taken a lot of time to figure out what we breathe every single day.

    Antoine Lavoisier's most famous discovery was the law of conservation of mass, which says that although substances can change their state or shape, they maintain the same mass. This discovery important because it helped other scientists to think about differences between substances and their properties.

    It is said that around 1836 Berzelius proposed the concept of catalysis, but that's not really what happened. 40 years earlier, Elizabeth Fulhame proposed this concept. She was a Scottish chemist of whom very little is known, her birthdate and death are unknown. Her contribution has been good and very important for every chemist and chemistry students

    Many years ago, John Dalton found a way to link invisible atoms together with materials that had measurable attributes. He said that the tiny particles we see in microscopes are atoms and that a pure element has identical atoms that have the same mass. His discovery had a big impact on chemistry, it's very useful for chemistry students and chemists. His theory remains untouched and very used until now

    Many years ago, the chemist Pierre Robiquet discovered the properties of codeine and also did an extraction of the opium alkaloids. He was the first person to discover the asparagine, and asparagine was the first amino acid ever discovered. His discovery has been important because people are aware of what can happen to them if they consume codeine

    Aluminum is one of the most used metals in our modern world. It was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted, he isolated the metal by a chemical process that used an amalgam of potassium and aluminum chloride. His discovery is very important because we use this metal a lot, and it's very useful.
  • UREA

    Friedrich Wöhler accidentally synthesized urea from inorganic materials, showing that substances produced by living beings can reproduce with motionless substances. His discovery is important for some studies, because Urea is an organic toxic substance.

    Several years ago, people who needed surgery had to drink a big amount of alcohol and pray. Later on, the dentist William Morton discovered anesthesia, and in 1846 he performed a dental surgery with it to prove its efficacy. His discovery was really important because people can get any painful medical process without feeling it, and it has created a good impact to everyone. Now, we can tell that anesthesia is more effective due to its higher content of chemicals to relief pain

    We all have used plastic for at least once. It has a lot of purposes and it's useful. The first person to ever make plastic was Alexander Parkes, a metallurgist. The purpose of it was to make a waterproof protection for clothes. The invention of plastic had a huge impact on the world, because plastic is used a lot for different things, but unfortunately, it's damaging our environment. Now, there are many types of plastic that have many uses and probably aren't exactly as before

    Even though the person who discovered petroleum wasn't a chemist, he contributed with his discovery, making of petroleum a massive source of energy, and it was later proved the amount of hydrocarbons that it contains. The person who discovered it was Edwin L. Drake. This was very good of everyone, as there is a giant source of energy for cars, to make other substances, etc.

    Dmitri Mendeléyev created the periodic table of the elements for it to be easier identify some elements, so people didn't have to memorize the name and characteristics of each one. He was helped by more scientists for his invention. His invention has been very important because almost everyone has studied it at school and chemists need it too. Nowadays, this table is different from the original, as more elements have been discovered it has evolved

    While creating an antidote against arsenic, Robert Bunsen discovered Cesium. Along with Gustav Kirchhoff, he invented the spectroscope and promoted the analysis of the spectrum that led to the discovery of cesium and rubidium. This discovery and invention were both important to study the elements and structures of atoms.

    Louis Pasteur was a French chemist who discovered the Pasteurisation. This consisted on heating up food or drinks to kill the bacteria they contain, and it will be safe to consume. This discovery was very important and affected everyone in a positive way, now a lot people don't die after drinking contaminated milk, for example. Just the same happens with other products, not just milk. Nowadays, pasteurization can be more effective with technology that can kill even more bacteria

    Friedrich Kekulé observed the chemical structure of benzene, making the study of molecular structure. After years of studying the nature of carbon-carbon bonds, Kekulé thought of the ring shape of the benzene molecule, all thanks to a dream he had. This discovery is important because now we can take a better look at benzene and study its structure.

    Dynamite is an explosive that was created with the purpose of helping people mine in an easier and faster way, but it was later used for violent purposes such as war. It was created by Alfred Nobel. His invention was important for people who mine, but unfortunately other people have used this creation for bad purposes.

    Even though we started having environmental problems some years ago, several years before, scientists were already looking forward to create awareness about our environment to be hygienic and take care of it. The person who started this concept and investigated about chemical consequences on our planet was Ellen Swallow Richards. Her foundation was important to raise awareness of what could happen, still when the pollution issues weren't so big.
  • X-RAYS

    Nowadays, when a doctor wants to examine the inside of our organism, X-rays are commonly used. They were invented by Wilhelm Roentgen. He made experiments with ray radiation, then he noticed that the rays are capable of being fixed on opaque black paper, if it is surrounding a cathode ray tube, making a shape that sparkles brilliantly. His invention has been very important because now we can take closer look to the inside of a body.

    Marie Curie was a french scientist who discovered the radioactivity, she contributed to the creation of X-rays, and she proposed the the cause of radioactivity was due to the breakdown of particular atoms. Her input was really good for everyone, because many medical procedures use radiation, etc. Now, radiation might be more or less effective because it can now be controlled easier to not harm other people.

    The Haber Bosch process was made by the german chemist Fritz Haber. This process consists on making nitrogen and hydrogen gas react to get ammonia. This has been very important for every single person. Ammonia cleans, neutralizes and stabilizes drinks, food and other substances. Ammonia has always been very effective and hasn't changed at all, it's a chemical compound that stayed untouched

    We use it for chemistry class to explain the stable orbitals that are around the electrons. The Bohr diagram was made by Niel Bohr, who also applied quantum theory to the d problem of atomic and molecular structure. His discovery and creation have been important for chemist and school students who still study this diagram.

    Dorotea Barnés was a Spanish chemist who was known to be one of the most brilliant women between the 20's and 30's. She did a very important investigation about the nicotinic acid, which led to different discoveries. Even she didn't invent something, her investigations on nicotinic acid and spectroscopy were a key to new contributions

    Ida Eva Noddack was a chemist who discovered the element rhenium, which is used for steel superalloys and catalysis for oil refinery. She also proposed the idea of nuclear fission. Her contribution is important, because rhenium is used for complex and essential purposes in industries.

    The penicillin is an antibiotic used to cure bacterial infections. After some experiments in his lab, he realized that his substance was killing bacteria. This was one of the biggest medical discoveries in history, because it can protect anyone from a bacterial infection. There might be more efficacy in penicillin due to the advance of materials and technology, besides, there are now more presentations of this antibiotic to be taken in different ways

    The Cori cycle establishes that the glycogen is broken down in muscles, to be stored and then transformed into an energy source. This cycle is named after the person who discovered it, Gerty Theresa Cori, a biochemist from Prague. Her discovery has been very important and still used to study in some careers like medicine, but mostly biochemistry
  • pH METER

    pH METER
    Arnold Beckham's first invention was the pH meter. It was created for a classmate at a citrus processing plant, so he designed the pH meter to measure acid levels in lemon juice.His invention is nowadays very important because it helps us measure the acidity or alkalinity in different substances.

    We mentioned Marie Curie earlier, but now let's talk about her daughter: Irène Joliot Curie. She took a similar path to her mom's, she followed the radioactive discovery and investigated about more radioactive elements, making her the winner of a Nobel prize in 1935. Her contribution with the world of chemistry is essential, and i helped many other chemists to study those radioactive materials

    Astate was discovered by Emilio Segrè, and its isotopes were discovered by Berta Karlik, an Austrian chemist and physicist. She demonstrated the existence in nature of this element, thanks to natural decay processes. Her discovery was important to study the 85th element Astate.

    Its actual name is polytetrafluoroethylene, which was accidentally discovered by Roy Plunkett, a chemist. He was creating a CFC refrigerant, but he ended up discovering a non-sticking metal that's perfect to cook. His peculiar discovery has been good for every person who wants to cook something in a pan without the food sticking on it and making a mess.
  • LSD

    LSD is a psychedelic drug that alters a person's reality. The purpose of it wasn't for people to get high, its psychedelic effects were even unknown for five years. Albert Hoffman discovered it and later its properties were revealed. I think this discovery is important to show the effects that this drug can bring, so people are careful with it.

    At first, Marguerite Perey went through many hardships to become a chemist, but she did it and was the person who discovered Francium, the 87th element. Francium is a highly radioactive element that is used just for studies. This discovery is very interesting and important because it's another element discovered and hard to find due to its scarcity.

    Alice Ball was a chemist who invented the first efficient treatment against leprosy. Her invention was the most used leprosy treatment around the world until the antibiotics were created. Her impact was really big for some time, and positive for those who had leprosy and were treated.

    Cancer has always been a terrible disease that can't always be treated with a 100% efficacy. A little before chemotherapy was an actual thing, Alma Levant Hayden created a controversial drug that treats cancer as an alternative option. Nowadays, it is no longer used, but it demonstrated some efficacy

    Lise Meitner was a chemist and physicist who discovered the element protactinium, a very toxic and radioactive that currently does not have a use due to its scarcity and toxicity, but it has worked a lot for a couple of studies about it. Even though this contribution doesn't quite have a use, it's still interesting and something that not everybody could have achieved.

    Mary Maynard wanted to go after her father's steps, so she became a chemist, and then a doctor. She became the first African American to receive a doctorate, because she did many studies to show for the first time the impact that tobacco, age and other factors have on our heart and arteries. Her discovery was important, and it's a positive thing for every person (mostly smokers) to realize how bad smoking or neglecting good habits is

    One of the most popular contraceptive methods are the birth control pills, but who invented them? Luis Ernesto Miramontes, a Mexican chemist who also won a Nobel prize. His invention had a huge and positive impact on the whole world, helping anyone who does not want to have a baby

    Rosalind Franklin was criticized by her dad for wanting to become a scientist, but she didn't care and became a chemist. Who would have thought that she would be the one to discover the double helix of the DNA. Her discovery is very important because now it's much easier to study DNA and know its structure. The proof of the double helix still exists, so her discovery wasn't changed

    Monroe Eliot Wall was an american chemist who discovered Taxol, one of the most effective treatments for cancer. This drug prevents the cancer cells from dividing, and it was finally used on a patient on 1992. Taxol has been a very effective treatment since it was tested, and it's very helpful for every patient that struggles with cancer, so this creation is really good

    Stephanie Kwolek was the inventor of the kevlar fibers, which is a textile material that has saved lives; it's used for bulletproof vests and resistant protection clothes. This material is very useful for people who do hard work that can hurt them, and it's the most used material for those kind of tasks

    After her grandpa's death due to leukemia when she was 15 years old, Gertrude Elion decided to become a chemist. She started studying at a very young age and discovered the treatment for leukemia and other treatments for diseases. Her contribution has been really important and good, because thanks to her there is an effective way to treat people who suffer from this disease.

    George Heilmeier was an american engineer who invented one of the most used materials nowadays: The lcd screens, that are used for our phones, tv's, computers, etc. This invention has been very good, discarding the first idea of liquid crystal. Lcd screens have now evolved a little to be more practical and comfortable to use, so we can say they are more effective now.

    After the invention of different substances, many chemists tried to reveal the 3D structure of those biomolecules, but they were not able to do it. Dorothy Hodgkin was able to reveal them. She revealed the structure of Penicillin, insulin, vitamin B12, cholesterol, etc. Her contribution is very important for doctors and chemists, because it's easier to study those substances now. Her discovery was very effective and still is
  • HIV

    The HIV virus lowers the defenses of our organism, and then evolves to becoming AIDS, so if you get sick, you'll get seriously ill. The virus was discovered by Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, she discovered it through a chemical procedure. This discovery is very important because HIV is a strong virus, and we probably wouldn't have much information about it nowadays without Françoise.

    Some years ago, the sense of smell was barely talked, treated or known about, but Linda B. Buck changed that. She investigated about the sense of smell and made a huge investigation about it, bringing tons of information. She also discovered more functions by applying the molecular methodology to determine its purpose, using biology and chemistry. Her discovery was important because now experts can study and treat smell issues much easier.
  • ELEMENT 118

    ELEMENT 118
    Oganesson, a relatively recent discovered synthetic element that is known as the heaviest synthetic element on the periodic table. It was discovered by a lab team, in which the major achievement is attributed to Darleane Hoffman. This discovery has been important for the study of nuclear chemistry, which might not be very useful for an average person.

    Jacqueline Barton discovered the structure of DNA by using another method that she figured out, she probed the composition of it by shooting electrons through it, with custom-built molecules she can find genes, see how they are, and scan them for damage. This invention and discovery are important for geneticists to find any flaw in genes and why they are caused.
  • ELEMENT 116

    ELEMENT 116
    Another recent element that was discovered is the livermorium. This element is very unstable, which gives it a short life. It was discovered by Yuri Oganessian. This discovery has been useful only for investigation and study purposes, because it isn't the best for any industrial function.

    Ribosomes are complex molecules made of RNA molecules and proteins that form the protein synthesis in cells. Ada Yonath studied the function of ribosomes and proved their physical structure, thanks to this discovery and research, she won a Nobel prize. This discovery is important because it helps us to study closely and easier about the ribosome and the DNA structure.

    Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. This disease can be lethal, and it's very common in Africa. Tu Youyou, a Chinese chemist, discovered the artemisinin, a strong medicine to treat malaria effectively. Her discovery is important because many people with malaria have been treated and saved with this medicine.

    Lesley Yellowlees is a chemist who did a deep investigation on redox properties of compounds which mostly contain a transition metal. Such properties find many applications from solar energy conversion to catalytic processes. Her research and discovery is important because it brought a knew way to convert solar energy.