The persistence of memory

Chapter 28

  • Attack on Logic

    Friedrich Nietzche argued this year that the west had overempasized rationality and stifled the animal instinct that drives human creativity. He also argued that Christianity had been killed by lackluster Christians who no longer truly believed in God. This is significant because this demonstrates that people were losing faith in traditional conventions.
  • The Starry Night

    The painting, created by Dutch artist Vincent Van Gogh, painted the moving vision of Gogh’s mind’s eye while he observed the French sky. It is significant because it demonstrated the emotional intensity of postimpressionist art.
  • Postimpressionists

    The art style was made to critique impressionism, which sought to capture the overall feeling and impressions of an object. The new art style took on an increasingly surreal aspect, which reached its pinnacle following World War II.
  • The Radio

    The device, invented by Guglielmo Marconi, allowed for the transmission of of speech and music. This is significant because radio became a popular form of entertainment following World War I.
  • The First Movie House

    The first movie house opened in Los Angeles. These movie houses would churn out two full movies a week such as the 1903 Great Train Robbery. The movie industry is significant because it was a form of entertainment popular with the masses.
  • Relativity

    Albert Einstein disproved Newtonian physics when he demonstrates that time and space are relative to an observer’s viewpoint and that mass and energy are interchangeable. This is significant because he helped to end certainty in science.
  • Les Fauves

    The term, meant to critique Matisse and his followers, literally meant “wild beasts”. It is significant because it demonstrates that their paintings were shocking and broke with established forms.
  • Cubism

    The movement, founded by Pablo Picasso, concentrated on complex, geometric shapes with sharply angled planes and zigzagging lines. It is significant because it broke with previously established artistic norms.
  • The Bauhaus

    The school of architecture, founded by Walter Gropius, focused on the clean, light and elegant construction of iron and steel buildings. It is significant because it focused on functionalism instead of ornamentation.
  • The Rite of Spring

    The play, created by Sergei Diaghilev, nearly caused a riot when performed in Paris because of its almost pornographic depiction of a tribal rite. This is significant because it demonstrates that artistic advancements often clashed with social standards.
  • The Decline of the West

    The book, written by Oswald Spengler, argued that every culture had a life cycle of growth and decline. The book is significant because it argued that Asians would take control of the world away from Europeans.
  • Economic COnsequences of Peace

    The book, written by John Maynard Keynes, argued that the harsh reparations enforced on Germany would impoverish Germany and the world in general. Only a complete revision of the Treaty of Versailles could prevent this disaster. The book was significant because is stirred feelings of guilt about Germany in the English speaking world.
  • Dadaism

    The movement started in the 1920s. It is significant because its artists attacked all standards of artistic design and loved outrageous conduct. Many Dadaists were attracted to surrealism in 1924.
  • Nellie Melba Sings on Radio

    Melba sung in London, but was herd all across Europe. This is significant because it sparked the public's imagination and made the radio popular as a medium.
  • France Signs a Mutual Defense Treaty with Poland

    This is significant because it demonstrates that France was allying itself with the newly formed nations of Eastern Europe to protect itself from Germany.
  • Tractatus Logico Philosophicus

    The book, written by Wittgenstein, argued that philosophy was the logical categorization of thoughts. As such, it was a study of language, not science. This is significant because it elimenated many focuses, such as freedom and happyness, from the scientific spectrum.
  • Jacob's Room

    The book, written by Virginia Woolf, was a novel made up of a series of internal monologues, in which ideas and emotions from the past continuously resurface. The book is significant because it used the stream of consciousness technique.
  • Weimar Republic Announces Inability to Pay Reperations

    The Germans, motivated by rapid inflation, hostility and wracked by political assassinations, announced it would be unable to pay the 132 billion gold mark fee it owed. IT proposed a moratorium on reparations, which much of the English speaking world supported. The French did not support this and invaded the Rhineland in 1923.
  • France Occupies the Rhineland

    French armies occupied the Ruhr district in the Rhineland in response to Germany refusing to pay reparations. The German government ordered German workers to stop working in the Ruhr district in response to the occupation. The French then cut off the Ruhr district and only allowed in enough food to prevent starvation. This in turn resulted in the German government rapidly printing off money to pay its bills. This caused rapid inflation that wiped out the savings of many Germans.
  • Gustav Stresemann Comes to Powervin Germany

    He called off resistance in the Ruhr and agreed to pay reparations. However, he asked that Germany’s ability to pay reparations be reconsidered. Raymond Poincare, the leader of France, agreed because the occupation of the Ruhr had become increasingly unpopular in France.
  • Mein Kampf

    THe book, written by Adolph Hitler, outlined Hitler's beliefs and theories. The book is significant because it was an outline for the Nazi state.
  • Surrealism

    The painting style painted wild worlds of dreams and complex figures, often in great detail. It is significant because the seeming chaos of the art style demonstrated the role the Age of Uncertainty played in art.
  • Dawes Plan

    The plan, created by American banker Charles Dawes, loaned money to Germany, which would pay its reparations to France and Britain, which would pay its war debt to the United States. This circular plan worked facilitate worldwide economic recovery.
  • Wozzeck

    The opera, created by Alban Berg, was the tale of a soldier who was corrupted by inner demons and murdered his mistress. The opera is significant because it blended spoken dialogue with harsh, atonal music.
  • Spirit of Locarno

    In 1925, many European signed agreements in Locarno, Switzerland. France agreed to accept its borders, Britain and Italy promised to attack France or Germany if one invaded the other and Germany agreed to settle its territorial disputes with Poland and Czechoslovakia through peaceful means. This is significant because the treaties gave Europeans a greater sense of stability and security.
  • The Value of the Franc Drops

    The Franc had fallen to 10% of its prewar value. Poincare was recalled to office, where he slashed spending and raised taxes. THis inspired confidence in the government and saved the economy.
  • Principle of Uncertainity

    German physicist Werner Heisenberg formulated the principle of uncertainty, which states that it is impossible to know the position and speed of an individual electron. This made many people believe that the certainty of Newton’s theories had been replaced with tendencies and probabilities.
  • Great Depression Starts

    Before this date, American economic output actually decreased but this was hidden by wide-spread speculation. Prices started falling near this day and people rapidly attempted to sell off their stock, causing the stock market to collapse. The entire American and soon global economy went into a down spire as banks were unable to pay back all the money they owed to customers and economic production decreased.
  • Britain Abandons the Gold Standard

    Britain abandoned the system to reduce the value of its currency and make goods cheaper in an attempt to improve their economy. This failed mainly because many other nations such as the United States also left the gold standard.
  • New Deal

    American president rejected socialism and focused on forceful government intervention into the economy. It created new agencies such as the Works Progress Administration, which constructed buildings and highways. Millions of people received financial relief due to the new deal. It did not end the Great Depression, however.
  • Triumph of the Will

    The film was created by Leni Riefenstahl and covered a Nazi rally at Nuremberg. It combined imagery of crowds welcoming Hitler and mass processions of Nazi youth. This is significant because it shows the political value of film.
  • Agriculture Adjustment Act

    The act, passed by Roosevelt, attempted to raise farm prices by lowering production and rescue farmers. The law is significant because it resulted in overwhelming support for Roosevelt amongst farmers during the 1936 presidential election.
  • THe Popular Front in France

    The Popular Front, created to combat French fascism, was an alliance between communists, socialists and radicals. The communists and socialists gained many seats in Parliament while the radicals lost seats. The front attempted to launch programs of social reform modeled after the New Deal in the United States. This was popular with workers, but the program failed due to rising inflation and opposition from the wealthy. It collapsed in 1937 due to tensions caused by the Spanish Civil War.
  • The Neutron

    By this date, seven subatomic particles had been identified. The most significant was the neutron, which has a capacity to pass through other atom. This is significant because it could be used to cause chain reactions of an unbelievable force. This led to the construction of the atomic bomb.
  • 1984

    The book, written by George Orwell, depicted a dystopia where a totalitarian state constantly monitored and controlled its citizens through the use of technology, a new language and psychological terror. The book is significant because it accurately predicted what would occur in real totalitarian states such as the Soviet Union.