Chapter 1: The Peopling of the World, Prehistory to 2500 B.C.

  • Sep 2, 1000

    Australopithecines, 4 million to 1 million B.C.

    Australopithecines, 4 million to 1 million B.C.
    Australopithecines were the first beings to walk upright, or hominids. Their footprints were found in Laetoli, Turkey by Mary Leakey. They had developed opposable thumbs as well. A skeleton of this hominid was found by Donald Johnson in 1974 called "Lucy."
  • Period: Sep 2, 1000 to

    Prehistoric to Present

  • Homo Habilis, 2.5 million to 1.5 million B.C.

    Homo Habilis, 2.5 million to 1.5 million B.C.
    The homo habilis lived 2.5 million years ago. The name means "man of skill." This is becuase they used toold made of lava rock to help make survival easier. Their brains were 700 centimeters cubed. Louis and Mary Leakey found remains in East Africa.
  • Period: to

    Paleolithic Age, 2.5 million B.C. to 8000 B.C.

    The Paleolithic Age was the first part of the Stone Age and is also called the Old Stone Age. It is also the longest part and most of the very old tools made of stone are from this age.
  • Homo Erectus, 1.6 million to 30,000 B.C.

    Homo Erectus, 1.6 million to 30,000 B.C.
    The Homos Erectus lived about 1.6 million years ago. Their brains were 1,000 centimeters cubed. They became skilled hunters through the invention of technology such as tools used to dig, scrape, and cut. They were also the first to migrate, use fire, and develope the beginnings of language.
  • Neanderthals, 200,000 to 30,000 B.C.

    Neanderthals, 200,000 to 30,000 B.C.
    These hominids lived about 200,000 years ago and were founded in the continents Europe and Southwest Asia. Their brains were 1,450 centimeters cubed. They were heavily built and muscular. They had come up with religious beliefs which is evident through their ritual buriels, such as the one in Shanidar Cave. They lived in shelters and used tools made of stone. However they disappeared 30,000 years ago.
  • Cro- Magnons, 40,000 to 8,000 B.C.

    Cro- Magnons, 40,000 to 8,000 B.C.
    Cro- Magnons lived 40,000 years ago in Europe. Their brains were 1,400 centimeters cubed and they looked exactly like normal human beings. They made art and were skilled in the spoken language which gave them advantages over Neanderthals becuase they set up their hunts.
  • Neolithic Revolution, 8,000 B.C.

    Neolithic Revolution, 8,000 B.C.
    Also known as the Agricultural Revolution, The Neeolithic Revolution is essentially the discovery of farming. It was a move from gathering food to growing and producing food.
  • Jarmo, 7,000 B.C.

    Jarmo, 7,000 B.C.
    Located at the Zagros Mountains in Iraq, this village was one of the first agricultural settlements. Near the Zagros Mountains, there was an abundance of wheat, barley, goats, pigs, sheep, and horses. It became a foundation for other villages to look off of and became a model for modern life.
  • Catal Huyuk, 6,000 B.C.

    Catal Huyuk, 6,000 B.C.
    The name means "forked mound." This village was in south- central Turkey and was 129,499 miles squared. At its highest, its population was 5,000 to 6,000 people with1,000 homes made of brick and tightly packed. Its agricultural benefits allowed food surpluses as well as domesticationi of animals. It was well known for its abundant deposits of volcanoe rock. Natural disasters were drawbacks of settled life and as were looters. However they still developed art and religion and were prosperous.
  • Potter's Wheel, 3500 B.C.

    Potter's Wheel, 3500 B.C.
    This invention allowed the Sumerian artists to create jugs, plates, and bowls.
  • Ur, 3,000 B.C.

    Ur, 3,000 B.C.
    Urr was an early city in Sumer, which was located in modern day southern Iraq along the banks of the Euphrates River. They had many specialilzed workers, defined social classes, and a very good agricultural economy. The extensive irrigation system helped a lot with the crops and trade was huge in Ur and they bartered in bazaars. The main part of the city however was the ziggurat, or temple. Here they offered sacrifices to the gods and performed rituals. Also, trade items were stored here.
  • Invention of Cuneiform, 3000 B.C.

    Invention of Cuneiform, 3000 B.C.
    Cuneiform was invented in 3,000 B.C. by the Sumerian scribes. The word means "wedge shaped" and it was written on slabs of clay which were then dried. It was mostly pictorgraphs.
  • Bronze Age, 3000 B.C.

    Bronze Age, 3000 B.C.
    The Bronze Age started with the discovery of bronze, a mix of copper and tin. During this time, people started using bronze as an alternative and because it is more sturdy, they grew more as civilizations.
  • Leonard Woolley Finds Ur, 1922- 1934

    Leonard Woolley Finds Ur, 1922- 1934
    Leonard Woolley finds the city of Ur after 12 years of excavating it.
  • Catal Huyuk Found, 1958

    Catal Huyuk Found, 1958
    Archeologists found this village in the year 1958 in south-central Turkey.
  • Lucy Found, 1974

    Lucy Found, 1974
    In 1974, Donald Johanson and his team found the oldest skeleton of a hominid and named it Lucy, after the Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds." She dates back 3.5 million years.
  • Period: to

    Neolithic Age, 8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.

    This is also known as the New Stone Age or the second part of the Stone Age. In this age people learned many more tools like polishing tools made of stone, making pottery, growing crops, and raising animals. During the entire span of the Stone Age, the greatest discoveries were the ability to make tools, control fire, and to develope a spoken language.
  • Footprints found, 1978

    Footprints found, 1978
    Mary Leakey found the footprints of hominids known as australopithecines in Laetoli, Turkey.