ORIGIN OF LIFE, EVOLUTIONS AND TAXONOMY
First componentsThe universe expands and cools. Quarks clump together and form protons and neutrons, the building blocks of atomic nuclei. Possibly dark matter is formed. its age is 0.01 seconds.
First nuclei.As the universe continues to cool, the lightest atomic nuclei, hydrogen and helium, appear. A dense fog of particles blocks all light. The age of the unieverse is 0.1 to 200 seconds.
Inflation13.77 billion years ago the universe arose, in a time much less than a nanosecond, a repulsive energy field expands space to visible dimensions and fills it with a soup of subatomic particles called quarks. its age is 10 to -32 seconds. The page only allows us to set a limit of years so the date will be "13770" which will represent millions of years.
First atoms.As the universe continues to cool, the lightest atomic nuclei, hydrogen and helium, appear. A dense fog of particles blocks all light. Age: 380,000 years.
The dark epochFor 300 million years, the cosmic background radiation is the only light. The lumps of matter that will become galaxies emit the most radiation. Age: 380,000 years to 300 million years.
First starsThe densest gas clouds collapse due to their own gravity (and that of dark matter), and galaxies and stars eventually form. Nuclear fusion "ignites" the stars. The age of the universe is 300 million years.
Triumph of antigravityThe expansion of the universe, after slowing down for billions of years due to gravity, is accelerating again. The culprit: dark energy. Its nature: unknown. The age of the universe is 10 billion years.
AristotleClassified plants as flowering and non-flowering, animals as blue-blooded or red-blooded, and viviparous or oviparous.
Medieval period• The classification of animals and plants had a practical or utilitarian bias.
• There were catalogs of animals, called bestiaries, that arranged the species alphabetically, and as Latin was replaced by vulgar languages in the early
• modern nations, these books also adopted the local language.
• For its use or for some very obvious characteristic.
Carl LinneoThe father of taxonomy.
Linnaeus classified living beings into different hierarchical levels: genera are grouped into families, families into orders, orders into classes, classes into types, which in turn are grouped into kingdoms.
Jean Baptiste de LamarckHe was the first naturalist to conceptually rethink the ancient theory of
He appealed to explain the origin of the first living beings (microbes); he thought
that all species of plants and animals that inhabit the world descended from
microbes through continuous modifications
Alfred WallaceIn 1858, Wallace wrote what would become known as "the Ternate essay" , that would change our understanding of life forever. In his text, he explained that one species only transforms into another if it is struggling to survive. Moreover, his findings were surprising, with the number of species he counted. HIs theory presented similarities with Darwin's troeria, which made their theories to be presented at the same time, each one with its own merit.
Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur overcame spontaneous generation. He designed an experiment in which he demonstrated that broth cultures that had been sterilized, and then isolated from the environment, did not decay. He showed that organic matter did not spoil because other microbes from outside did not come to colonize them and, of course, no new microbes appeared there by spontaneous generation
Charles DarwinDarwin defined evolution as "descent with modification," the idea that species change over time, give rise to new species and share a common ancestor. Rather than a single theory, it is a set of interrelated scientific disquisitions, the foundations of which can be summarized in three key points:
Diversification and adaptation of life.
Alexander Ivánovich OparinHe proposed that the first living beings, unicellular and anaerobic microbes, must have arisen from inorganic matter that was transformed by a process of chemical evolution into organic molecules of all kinds that dissolved in the seas of the
primitive Earth, as if it were a broth or soup of organic molecules.
Belgian priest Georges LemaîtreBig Bang theory
It states that the universe was in a state of very high density and temperature and then expanded, it was born with a big "initial explosion explosion" about 13.7 billion years ago. In its evolution, first the subatomic particles were formed, the atomic nuclei, and then the first lumps of matter began to form, stars and galaxies were formed by evolution and from the Big Bang to the present time the Universe has not stopped expanding.
Richard TolmanPulsating Universe
The one that proposes that the universe undergoes an infinite series of oscillations; each of which begins with a Big Bang, and ends with a Big Crunch. The universe expands for a time, before the gravitational pull of matter draws closer, until it collapses and then undergoes a Big Bounce.
James jeansStationary state
According to this theory, the decrease in density that the universe produces as it expands is compensated by a continuous creation of
matter. Because little matter is needed to keep the density of the
universe constant as it expands.
Harold Urey and Stanley L. MillerHarold Urey read Oparin and deduced the initial compounds of the early Earth's reducing atmosphere, and Stanley L. Miller offered to take Urey under his tutelage to experiment with this hypothetical model atmosphere. In 1953, Miller designed a system of tubes and flasks insulated from the outside that simulated both the hydrosphere and the atmosphere of the early Earth. The experiment paid off; in two days, complex organic molecules were transformed in the absence of living things.
WhittakerIn 1959, he formalized the fifth kingdom of life, which he named Fungi.
Joan OróJoan Oró, following the example of Miller and Urey, worked with hydrocyanic acid, and ended up synthesizing adenine, the molecules of which genes are made and which are responsible for biological inheritance. Some natural phenomena confirm the predictions of the heterotrophic theory and support the abiotic syntheses of the experiments.
Whose and Fox• Bacteria: This organism can be found in oceans and even on the ground. They make up a huge group óyeme than bacteria.
• Archaea: It is a microscopic unicellular organism, archao is its scientific name that means ancient, it can be said of this domain that it is a species of the bacterial type, its membranes are composed of carbon chains, linked to glycerol with ether.
• Eukarya: They are multicellular organisms, which are nourished by absorption.
Margulis and SchwartIn 1998 they created a category called Super Kingdom.
▪ Procaryota Super Kingdom
• Monera or Bacteria Kingdom
▪ Super Eucaryota Kingdom
• Protist or Protoctist Kingdom
• Plantae kingdom
• Fungi kingdom
• Animalia kingdom
PresentThe universe continues to expand and is becoming less dense. As a result, fewer galaxies and new stars are forming. The age of the universe is 13.77 billion years with a 1% margin of error.