Period: 541 BCE to 252 BCE
PALEOZOIC ERAThe Paleozoic Era was an extremely rich period from a biological point of view, a transition between the kingdom of invertebrate animals and that of vertebrates or higher.During this period, the seas were literally filled with life and migrated to land, conquering new habitats and expanding throughout the planet.
Period: 541 BCE to 485 BCE
Explosion in the CambrianCambrian animals did not appear by magic; fossils of animals prior to the Cambrian have been found. About 575 million years ago, a strange group of animals known as the Ediacaran fauna inhabited the oceans and, although we do not know much about these animals, there may be ancestors of the lineages that we identified from the explosion in the group.
Period: 485 BCE to 444 BCE
Ordovician radiationThe Ordovician radiation, or the Great Ordovician Biodiversity Event .It was an evolutionary radiation of animal life that occurred throughout the Ordovician period, 40 million years after the Cambrian explosion whereby the distinctive Cambrian fauna disappeared to be replaced with a Paleozoic fauna rich in filter-feeding and pelagic animals
It followed a series of Ordovician-Silurian mass extinction events, and the resulting fauna came to dominate the Paleozoic relatively unchanged.
Period: 444 BCE to 419 BCE
The Silurian PlantsIn the Silurian era the first plants began to appear, plants have not always been as we know them today, they have also changed (evolved) with the passage of time, from unicellular organisms to developing structures such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers , fruits and seeds in complex organisms.
Period: 419 BCE to 359 BCE
DENOVIAN EVENTThe development of roots, seeds, leaves, and woody tissues provided the means for species diversification, growth into large trees, and finally the development of the first forests. Roots improved water and nutrient absorption and the ability of plants to “anchor” into soil, which also appeared during the Devonian.
Period: 359 BCE to 299 BCE
CARBONIFEROUS EVENTThe later half of the period experienced glaciations, low sea level, and mountain building as the continents collided to form Pangaea. A minor marine and terrestrial extinction event, the Carboniferous rainforest collapse, occurred at the end of the period, caused by climate change.
Period: 299 BCE to 252 BCE
The Permian mass extincionthe Permian mass extinction has been the largest extinction ever to occur on Earth. In it, approximately 95% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate species disappeared, and with so little biodiversity resulting, life took a long time to recover. Numerous evolutionary branches of the tree of life were severed, leaving very few representatives available to repopulate the planet.
Period: 252 BCE to 66 BCE
MASEOZOIC ERAIn the Mesozoic Era, the world was under the rule of dinosaurs, which is why, zoologically, it is known as “The Age of Dinosaurs”. The cycads dominated the plant kingdom, which is why it is known botanically as "The era of cycads."
Period: 252 BCE to 201 BCE
TRIASSIC EVENTThe start of the Triassic period (and the Mesozoic era) was a desolate time in Earth's history. Something—a bout of violent volcanic eruptions, climate change, or perhaps a fatal run-in with a comet or asteroid—had triggered the extinction of more than 90 percent of Earth's species.
But it was also a time of tremendous change and rejuvenation. Life that survived the so-called Great Dying repopulated the planet, diversified into freshly exposed ecological niches
Period: 201 BCE to 145 BCE
Jurassic eventPlants dominated the surface of the earth, flying and aquatic reptiles began to appear, the first birds also appear, and there is much more variety of dinosaurs.
Period: 145 BCE to 66 BCE
CRETACETOUS EVENTThe Cretaceous Period was the last and longest segment of the Mesozoic Era. It lasted approximately 79 million years, from the minor extinction event that closed the Jurassic Period about 145 million years ago to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event dated at 66 million years ago.
In the early Cretaceous, the continents were in very different positions than they are today. Sections of the supercontinent Pangaea were drifting apart.
Period: 66 BCE to 50
CENOZOIC ERAIt was Cenozoic. During the early part of this era, an abrupt transition from the age of reptiles to the age of mammals took place, as the large dinosaurs and other reptiles that had dominated life during the Mesozoic disappeared. Cenozoic fossils are often microscopic, such as the tiny shells of foraminifera. Fossil pollen is also used for dating rock strata from this era.
Period: 66 BCE to 2 BCE
The Alpine OrogenyMammals are beginning to appear and mountains are also beginning to form.
The Alpine orogeny is the Tertiary orogeny responsible for the great lines of the current relief in almost the entire world. The alpine orogeny is a stage of mountain formation (orogeny) that during the Cenozoic formed the main mountain ranges of southern Europe and Asia,
starting in the Atlantic, passing through the Mediterranean and the Himalayas and ending in the islands of Java and Sumatra.
Period: 2 BCE to 50
QUATERNARY EVENTThe Quaternary covers the time span of glaciations classified as the Pleistocene, and includes the present interglacial time-period, the Holocene. This places the start of the Quaternary at the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation approximately 2.6 million years ago.