Quaternary Holocene (1 millions years ago）the ice disappears giving rise to earth surfaces. The climate is warmer with abundance of flora and fauna. And we develop hunting and agriculture.
Quaternary Pleistocene ( 2 millions years ago)It is also known as the ice age. Places where ice had never existed before were covered. By the end of this period many mammals had become extinct and ended 0.01 million years ago.
Period: 2 to AD 1
Quaternary （2 millions years ago）is the most modern we know. It is divided into two periods.
Neogene Pliocene (5 millions years ago)The mammals reached their maximum apogee and spread. The climate was cold and dry and the first hominids appeared as species such as Australopithecines and Homo habilis and Homo erectus, ancestors of Homo sapiens.
Neogene Miocene (23 millions years ago)It ended 5.3 million years ago. All the mountain chains finished forming and the Antarctic ice cap was formed, as well as the first grasslands and the fauna continued its evolution.
Period: 23 to 2
Neogene （23 millions years ago to 2 millions years ago）beginning 23 million years ago and ending 2.6 million years ago. It has two stages
Palaeogene Oligocene (34 millions years ago)The latter ended 23 million years ago giving way to the Quaternary period. The tectonic plates continued to collide to form the Mediterranean Sea and mountain ranges were formed, such as those of the Himalayas and the Alps.
Palaeogene Eocene (56 millions years ago)It started 56 million years ago and ended 34 million years ago. In this time the great mountain ranges mentioned above arose. Mammals developed so much and became the most important. In addition, the first horses appeared and primates and whales were born.
Palaeogene Palaeocene (66 millions years ago)It ended up to 56 million years ago in total ten. It is characterized by the cooling of the planets by the formation of the polar ice caps. The supercontinent Pangea ended up dividing and numerous species of birds emerged along with the development of angiosperms.
Period: 66 to 2
Caenozoic （ 66 millions years ago to 2 millions years ago）It marked the beginning of the mammal revolution. Great changes as the Atlantic Ocean was expanding to form the Atlantic ridge or the formation of the Himalayas. The rocks that were present in this era developed in the continents and low plains, acquiring a higher level of hardness. The tectonic plates are in movement and lo and behold, the great mountain ranges were formed, the first hominids appeared, the polar caps developed and the human species appeared.
Period: 66 to 23
Palaeogene （66 millions years ago to 23 millions years ago）
Cretaceous Late (100 millions years ago)is also divided into six ages: Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian, Campanian and Maastrichtian. In all this time the ceratopsian dinosaurs, tyrannosaurs, hadrosaurs, ankylosaurs, etc., were diversified. The continents were already separated and had a form similar to the current one but with many distinctive parts. The end of the Cretaceous is marked by the massive extinction of the Cretaceous - Palogenous.
Cretaceous Early (145 millions years ago)It is divided into six ages: Berriasiense, Valanginiense, Hauteriviense, Barremiense, Aptiense and Albiense. It extends from 145.0 to 100.5 million years. The ceratopsians, tyrannosaurs, hadrosaurs abounded but the stegosaurs became extinct and the great sauropods suffered several changes.
Period: 145 to 66
Cretaceous （ 145 millions years ago to 66 millions years ago）There is a massive mass extinction of dinosaurs and 75% of all invertebrates, causes by the fall of a huge meteorite on the Yucatan Peninsula that changed the living conditions of the Earth Life in seas and on land appeared as a mixture of modern forms, especially ammonites, and as data from the middle of the Cretaceous, the formation of more than 50% of the world's oil reserves was known today.
Jurassic Late (163 millions years ago)is the last epoch and it is subdivided into three ages, Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Titonian. Dinosaurs characteristic of this period are Allosaurus, a theropod, and Diplodocus, a sauropod.
Jurassic Middle (174 millions years ago)is the second epoch of this period and is subdivided into four ages, Aaleniense, Bajociense, Bathoniense and Calloviense.
Jurassic Early ( 201millions years ago)Lias or Liassic is the first period of this period that is subdivided into four ages: the Hettangian, Sinemurian, Pliensbachian and Toarciense. Also during this time, global warming was detected.
Period: 201 to 145
Jurassic （201 millions years ago to 145 millions years ago)The climate changes being better to the growth of the dinosaurs and quite abundant vegetation. Ichthyosaurs and pleosaurios appear, marine animals. As the continents separated, the seas grew and in some places dried up to make way for other places. As for the land, the most abundant trees were evergreen trees, mostly conifers and ginkgos. There are also some such as sauropods, cetiosaurs and omeisaurs.
Triassic Late (237 millions years ago)It is divided into Carniense, Noriense and Rhaetian ages. The ammonoids, and pterosaurs that were flying reptiles, appeared.
Triassic middle (247 millions years ago)also known by Muschelkalk. It's divided into the Anisian and Ladinian faunal floors. Nowadays, we find fossils of species such as Ceratites nodosus, Cenoceras, Discoceratites and others.
Triassic Early (252 millions years ago)During this period, the greatest catastrophe occurred, which was the massive extinction of the Permian-Triassic, where many marine and terrestrial species such as corals, brachiopods, mollusks... disappeared. The climate was mainly dry and arid, abundant large deserts until it stabilized.
Period: 252 to 66
Mesozoic (252 millions years ago to 66 millions years ago)Is the age of dinosaurs
Period: 252 to 201
Triassic ( 252 millions years ago to 201 millions years ago)
Permian (298 millions years ago)Floors of marine facies: artinskiense, konguriense, and kazaniense.
Floors of continental facies: antuniense, safoniense, and turingiense.
Multiple climatic from tropical to arid.
Extinction of amphibians and tree ferns.
Deserts appear and low sea level.
At the end of this period, the most catastrophic extinction occurs, as only 5% of the species survived
(http://www.ilustrados.com/tema/4825/Historia-Geologica-Tierra.html https://www.mundoprehistorico.com/permico/ y libro)
Carboniferous (358 millions years ago)Appearance of reptiles
Development of tree ferns and gymnosperms, which, after being buried, give rise to carbon strata
Expansion of cartilaginous and bony fish
Insects such as dragonflies abound
Formation of the mega-continent Pangea and creation of epicontinental seas.
Active formation of mountains.
(http://www.ilustrados.com/tema/4825/Historia-Geologica-Tierra.html https://www.mundoprehistorico.com/carbonifero/ y libro)
Devonian (419 millions years ago)Predominance of sandstone, limestone and clay slate.
Fish evolve into amphibians.
Large number of primitive sharks.
Formation of the continent called Euroamerica.
Great tectonic activity.
Massive extinction crisis that mainly affected the marine environment during the Frasniense-Fameniense transit.
(https://www.mundoprehistorico.com/devonico/ http://www.ilustrados.com/tema/4825/Historia-Geologica-Tierra.html y libro)
Silurian (443 millions years ago)Species such as trilobites, brachiopods, cnidarians, echinoderms, bryozoans, molluscs, fish, scorpions and myriapods.
Of the flora, limestone algae stand out.
Warm and humid climate.
Appearance of nectonic animals, mostly predators.
(http://www.ilustrados.com/tema/4825/Historia-Geologica-Tierra.html https://www.mundoprehistorico.com/fauna-silurico/ y libro)
Ordovician (485 millions of years)It is divided into five floors: tremadociense, skiddaviense, llandeilo, caradociense and ashgilliense.
In some parts the oil and gas deposits began to form.
The marine sediments were made of limestone.
The climate was warm and tropical, with 40-50 degrees.
At the end of this time, a glaciation occurred that extinguished a large number of new species.
(https://www.mundoprehistorico.com/ordovicico/ http://www.ilustrados.com/tema/4825/Historia-Geologica-Tierra.html y libro)
Cambrian (541 millions years ago)They lived only aquatic vegetables and invertebrates.
The most representative arthropods are the trilobites.
At the Chengjiang fossiliferous site in China (530 million years ago).
Mass extinctions that eliminated brachiopods and other animals.
The most characteristic rocks were limestones.
(http://www.ilustrados.com/tema/4825/Historia-Geologica-Tierra.html https://www.nationalgeographic.es/historia/periodo-cambrico y libro)
Period: 541 to 252
Palaeozoic (541 millions years ago to 252 millions years ago)
Neoproterozoic (1000 millions years ago)The most extensive glaciation known in the geological record occurred during the Cryogenic Period, when the ice sheets possibly reached the equator and a snowball Earth formed.
Mesoproterozoic (1600 millions years ago）Begins 1600 million years ago and ends 1000 million years
ago. In this era the maximum diversity and abundance of the stromatolitos formed by cyanobacteria is reached.
Paleoproterozoic ( 2500 millions years ago)Is the first geological age of the three that make up the
Proterozoic Eon and that begins 2.500 million years ago and ends 1,600 million years ago lasting 900 million years. The Great Oxidation was also produced as a consequence of the chemical process of photosynthesis carried out by the cyanobacteria.
Period: to 541
Proterozoic ( 2500 millions years ago to 541 millions years ago)
Neoarchaen ( 2800 millions years ago)2800-2500 Ma. Bacteria continue to improve the photosynthesis mechanism, which becomes oxygenic, releasing immense amounts of oxygen in the air that will cause the great oxidation in the future.
Mesoarchaean ( 3200 millions years ago)3000 Ma. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria evolve
2900 Ma. First glaciation.
3800 Ma. Vaalbará supercontinent fragments
Palaeoarchaen ( 3600 millions years ago)3500 Ma. Differentiation between bacteria and archaea. Bacteria begin to develop a primitive photosynthesis.
3460 Ma. Microfossil found in Western Australia.
Eoarchaen (4000 millions years ago)4000 Ma is formed the belt of green rocks of gnesis Acasta of the massif of Labrador (Canada).
4100Ma-3800 Ma. Rain of astronomical impacts of asteroids with the possibility of creating life.
3900Ma-Cells similar to prokaryotes appear.
3800Ma. Isua supracortical belt formation.
3700 Ma. First evidence of life on Earth in graphite of biogenetic origin from the metasedimented rocks in Greenland.
3600 Ma. The first supercontinent called Vaalbará is formed.
Archaean (4000 millions years ago to 2500 millions years ago)https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Era_Eoarcaica
Hadean ( 4600 millions years ago)Aproximmetly 45 years after the Earth began to form.
There was an intense volcanic activity and a variate climate.
Oceans appeared because of the cooling down of the atmosphere that caused rain.
Amino acids from space began to join together to form the first proteins. Also, the earliest RNA molecules could be dated on that time.
(https://quatr.us/geology/hadean-eon-earth-moon-proteins-rna.htm http://www.ilustrados.com/tema/4825/Historia-Geologica-Tierra.html y libro)