[Geological Timeline of Earth]

  • 1 CE

    First Humans

    First Humans
    100,000 years ago, the first humans appeared
    Homo sapiens were the first humans
  • Period: 3 to 1 CE

    Quaternary Period

    3 mya - present, the Quaternary Period is occurring.
    This is the period we are in, and the early period had saber-tooth tigers and wooly mammoths roaming the earth
  • Period: 3 to 1 BCE

    Quaternary Glacation

    2.6 mya - present, the Quaternary Glacation occurred/ is occurring.
  • Period: 22 to 23

    First Grasses

    22 mya, the first grasses appeared
  • Period: 23 to 3

    Neogene Period

    The Neogene Period occurred 23 mya - 3 mya
    This period had early ancestor animals of cattle, sheep, goat, gazelles and antelope.
  • Period: 33 to 34

    First Apes

    33 mya, the first apes appeared
  • 35

    First Giant Sloth

    First Giant Sloth
    35 mya, the first giant sloth appeared
  • Period: 50 to 51

    Eohippus (First Known Horse)

    50 mya, the Eohippus (First Known Horse) appeared
  • Period: 65 to 66

    Dinosaur Extinction

    65 mya, the great dinosaur extinction occurred
    It is thought a giant asteroid hit the earth, causing a mass extinction
  • 66

    Paleogene Period

    Paleogene Period
    The Paleogene Period occurred 66 mya - 23 mya
    This period was after the great dinosaur extinction, and many mammals and other animals began to evolve
  • Period: 140 to 130

    First Flowering Plants

    140 mya - 130 mya, the first flowering plants appeared
  • Period: 146 to 66

    Cretaceous Period

    The Cretaceous Period occurred 146 mya - 66 mya
    This era was defined as what we imagine today
    Dinosaurs like the T-Rex roamed the Earth
  • Period: 200 to 146

    Jurassic Period

    The Jurassic Period occurred 200 mya - 146 mya
    Dinosaurs dominated the Earth's land and ocean at this time
  • Period: 200 to 201

    First Earthworms

    200 mya, the first earthworms appeared
  • Period: 220 to 200

    First Mammals

    220 mya - 200 mya, the first mammals appeared
  • Period: 240 to 241


    240 mya, the age of the dinosaurs began
  • Period: 250 to 251

    Permian-Triassic Extinction

    The Permian-Triassic Extinction occurred 250 mya
    This was the largest mass extinction, wiping out many vertebrates
  • 251

    Triassic Period

    Triassic Period
    The Triassic Period occurred 251 mya - 200 mya
    This period was defined as when life on land began to diversify after the great extinction
  • Period: 299 to 251

    Permian Era

    The Permian Era occurred 299 mya - 251 mya
    This era was recognized for the mass extinction that affected many organisms
    The geography had large bodies of land and water, as Pangaea was fused together
  • 336


    336 mya - 173 mya, the supercontinent Pangaea formed
  • 359

    Carboniferous Period

    Carboniferous Period
    359 mya - 299 mya, the Carboniferous Period occurred
    This period was defined by its swampy, humid geography
    Plants and animals evolved to adapt to this climate
  • Period: 360 to 260

    Karoo Glacation

    360 mya - 260 mya, the Karoo Glacation occurred.
  • Period: 365 to 365

    Devonian Extinction

    The Devonian Extinction occurred 365 mya
    Many tropical marine organisms went extinct during this time
  • Period: 395 to 370

    First Amphibians

    395 mya - 370 mya, the first Amphibians appeared
  • Period: 400 to 360

    First Ferns

    400 mya - 360 mya, the first ferns appeared
  • Period: 400 to 330

    First Winged Insects

    400 mya - 330 mya, the first winged insects appeared
  • Period: 412 to 380

    First Insects

    412 mya - 380 mya, the first insects appeared
  • Period: 416 to 359

    Devonian Period

    The Devonian Era occurred 416 mya - 359 mya
    This era was defined as when plants and animals started to move towards the land
  • Period: 425 to 390

    First Sharks

    425 mya - 390 mya, the first sharks appeared
  • Period: 443 to 444

    Marine Extinction

    Nearing the end of the Ordovian Era, the great marine extinction occurred. Sea levels decreased due to colder temperatures. This caused a lot of marine life to die.
  • Period: 444 to 416

    Silurian Period

    The Silurian Period occurred 444 mya - 416 mya
    This period is defined by the great marine extinction and colder temperatures
  • Period: 460 to 430

    Andean - Saharan Glacation

    460 mya - 430 mya, the Andean Saharan Glacation occurred.
  • Period: 470 to 440

    Land Plants

    470 mya - 440 mya, the first land plants appeared
  • Period: 472 to 451


    472 mya - 451 mya, the supercontinent Laurasia formed
  • Period: 488 to 444

    Ordovician Period

    The Ordovician Era occurred 488 mya - 444 mya
    This era is defined as when marine life diversified, but many went extinct nearing the end and the formation of the supercontient Laurasia
  • Period: 488 to 443

    Marine Life

    488 mya - 443 mya, the Ordovian Era had diverse lifeforms. These organisms included graptolites, trilobites, brachiopods, conodonts, red and green algae, primitive fish, cephalopods, corals, crinoids, and gastropods
  • Period: 530 to 440

    First Jawed Fish

    530 mya - 440 mya, the first jawed fish appeared
  • Period: 541 to 516

    Cambrian Explosion

    541 mya - 516 mya, the Cambrian explosion occurred
    This general period was when complex organisms with skeletal structures appeared
  • 542

    Cambrian Period

    Cambrian Period
    The Cambrian Period occurred 542 mya - 488 mya
    This era is defined when organisms began to rapidly evolve, also known as the Cambrian Explosion
  • Period: 542 to 488

    Earth Gets Warmer

    During the Cambrian Era, Earth gradually got warmer. The seas were warmer allowing more organisms to evolve. Even so, the land were generally barren since few plants evolved to live on land
  • Period: 550 to 551


    550 mya, the first jellyfish appeared
  • Period: 596 to 578


    596 mya - 578 mya, the supercontinent Godwana formed
  • 600

    Multicellular Life

    Multicellular Life
    600 mya, the first multicellular organisms began to appear
  • Period: 663 to 573


    663 mya - 573 mya, the supercontinent Pannotia formed
  • Period: 850 to 635

    Cryogenian Glacation

    850 mya - 635 mya, the Cryogenian Ice Age occurred.
  • Period: 1000 to 542

    Neoproterozoic Era

    The Neoproterozoic Era occurred 1000 mya - 542 mya
    This era is defined as when the first multicelluar organisms appeared and the supercontinent Pannotia and Gondwana
  • Period: 1100 to 700


    1100 mya - 700 mya, the supercontinent Rodina formed
  • 1200

    First Green Plants

    1200 mya, the first green plants, similar to algae, appeared
  • Period: 1200 to 1201

    Sexual Reproduction

    1200 mya, the first sexually reproducing organisms appeared
  • Period: to 1000

    Mesoproterozoic Era

    The Mesoproterozoic Era occurred 1600 mya - 1000 mya
    This era is defined as when the supercontinent Rodina was formed
  • The First Eukaryotes

    The First Eukaryotes
    1800 mya, the first Eukaryotes began to appear
    These single celled micro-organisms had a nucleus
  • Atlantica

    1900 mya - 1100 mya, the supercontinent Atlantica formed
  • Arctica

    2100 mya - 1900 mya, the supercontinent Arctica formed
  • Oxygen Pollution

    Oxygen Pollution
    2200 mya, Earth faced a crisis
    The rapidly expanding cyanobacteria caused a huge increase in oxygen
    This would cause oxygen levels to rise and oxygen poisoning.
  • Period: to

    Huronian Glacation

    2400 mya - 2100 mya, the Huronian Glacarion occurred
  • Period: to

    Paleoproterozoic Era

    2500 mya - 1600 mya, the Paleoproterozoic Era occurred
    This era is defined as when the first eukaryotes were formed and the formation of Arctica and Atlantica
  • Cyanobacteria

    2700 mya, the first cyanobacteria began to form. These micro-organisms used photosynthesis to form oxygen.
  • Period: to


    2700 mya, Kenorland, the second supercontinent, began to form
  • Ur

    2800 mya - 2400 mya, the supercontinent Ur formed
  • Period: to

    Neoarchean Era

    The Neoarchean Era occurred 2800 mya - 2500 mya
    This era is defined is defined where oxygen began to rise and the second supercontient, Kenorland.
  • Period: to

    Pangola Glacation

    2900 mya ago, the first Ice Age occured.
  • Stromatolites

    Around the time the Mesoarchean Period occured, 3200 mya, stromatolites began to appear. These organisms formed the first coral reefs.
  • Period: to

    Mesoarchean Era

    The Mesoarchean Era occurred about 3200 mya - 2800 mya
    This era is defined as when Vaalbara broke up, the formation of Ur, and the first ice age.
  • Period: to

    Stromatolites Appear

    Around the time the Mesoarchean Period occured, 3200 mya, stromatolites began to appear. These organisms formed the first coral reefs.
  • First Life

    First Life
    3500 mya, the first life began on Earth. Single celled micro organisms called prokaryotes began to appear. These organisms did not have a nucleus or membrane during this time.
  • Paleoarchean Era

    Paleoarchean Era
    The Paleoarchean Era occurred 3600 mya - 3200 mya.
    This era is defined as the beginning of life and the shifting of crusts due to plate tectonics.
  • Vaalbara

    3600 mya, Earth's crusts began to collide, forming the first supercontinent. Vaalbara finished its formation about 3100 mya.
  • Eoarchean Era

    Eoarchean Era
    The Eoarchean Era occurred 4000 mya - 3600 mya
    It is defined as when Earth begins to gain a solid crust.
  • Period: to

    Earth Cools Down

    4000 mya - 3800 mya, Earth gradually cooled down. As this occured, the lava would cool down to a firm crust.
  • Thea Hits Earth

    Thea Hits Earth
    4500 mya ago, the planet Thea hit Earth. This would later form the moon. The planet Thea was similar size to Mars, and the debris caused by this impact would form the moon.
  • Hadean Era

    Hadean Era
    The Hadean Era occurred 4600 mya - 4000 mya
    It is defined as the era when Earth started first formed.
    There are not many specific events, but the Earth was just like a giant ball of lava. There was no oceans, no atmosphere, and no life.
  • Formation of Earth

    Formation of Earth
    4600 mya, Earth was formed from a supernova.
  • Period: to

    Earth Gains an Atmosphere

    About 4000 mya, as the vapours from the hot Earth are released, and Earth gradually gained an atmosphere. It consisted of molecules like CO2, N2, H20, CH4, etc.
  • The Milky Way Galaxy

    The Milky Way Galaxy
    10000 mya, the Milky Way Galaxy collided and gobbled up another galaxy. Evidence of this are 50,000 known stars moving backward.