Causes and Effects of the Rwandan Genocide

  • What were the Causes and Effects of the Rwandan Genocide?

    The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 was one of the most brutal yet unknown events of mankind. It resulted in the death of over 800,000 people over the course of only one hundred days (Genocide In Rwanda). The implications and long lasting effects of this genocide stem from many causes which are explored throughout this timeline.
  • Hutu and Tutsi Arrival

    Hutu and Tutsi Arrival
    Hutu farmers arrived in the 10th century and the Tutsi pastoralists arrived in the 14th century. After hundreds of years of living together divisions were inevitable due to the clan and class affiliations (Rwanda, Culture).
  • Works Cited

  • Belgium Establishment

    Belgium Establishment
    Belgium gained control over Rwanda in 1914. They situated a class system which separated all people into either Tutsis or Hutus and then put Tutsi’s in power. This enraged Hutus and caused riots (“Rwanda Genocide”).
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    Habyarimana's Rule

    “In 1973, General Juvenal Habyarimana (1937–1994), a Hutu, overthrew Rwanda's president, beginning a 20-year dictatorship. Habyarimana and his close circle of advisers favored the Hutus, particularly the elite. Habyarimana established rigid ethnic quotas and expelled Tutsis from politics, government, business, and schools” causing many Tutsis to continue fleeing the country (Rwanda).
  • First Violent Attack

    First Violent Attack
    Violence first started in 1959 when Hutu attacked Tutsi in response to a Tutsi attack on a Hutu sub-chief (Rwanda, Culture).
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    Ethnic Struggles

    There was a great history of struggles between the Hutu and Tutsi people “From 1959 to 1961 some 20,000 Tutsi were killed, and many more fled the country" ("Rwanda genocide of 1994").
  • Rwandan Independence

    Rwandan Independence
    Belgium gave Rwanda independence and established democracy. 80% of Rwanda was of Hutu descendence, so when given independence, the leadership roles turned around, which placed the Hutu in power and in turn, 750,000 Tutsis migrated to other countries (“Rwanda Genocide”).
  • RPF Formation

    RPF Formation
    Tutsi rebels in Uganda wished to take back Rwanda so they formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front and invaded Rwanda in 1990 (Neyshloss).
  • Assassination of President Habyarimana

    Assassination of President Habyarimana
    The plane that Habyarimana and Burundi President Cyprien Ntaryamira was flying one was shot down on April 6, 1994, over Kigali killing everyone on board. Peace was broken when Habyarimana’s plane was shot down in April 1994. Habyarimana and the president of Burundi were both killed. No one knew who was behind the killing, but the assassination inflamed Rwanda's extremist Hutus (Longman).
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    The Course of the War

    This genocide was designed by a collection of government officials who used the arrangement and force of the state to enliven the genocide and expand it across Rwanda (Longman). The number of deaths due to the genocide and war falls between 500,000 to 1,000,000 (Longman).
  • Second Assassination

    Second Assassination
    The moderate Hutu Prime Minister, Agathe Uwilingiyimana, was assassinated the next day, on April 7, 1994 as part of a campaign to kill all moderate Politicians either Hutu or Tutsi. This was being done to allow the formation of a Hutu extremist led government (Rwanda, Encyclopaedia 37).
  • End of Genocide

    End of Genocide
    July 1994 RPF regained control ended the war and had to rebuild the economy and country. Hutu refugees left the country (Genocide In Rwanda).
  • Returning Rwandans

    Returning Rwandans
    Violence in Burundi causes about 100,000 Rwandans who had fled the country earlier to return to Rwanda ("Rwanda").
  • UN Interference

    UN Interference
    In a measure to prevent further genocide, the UN created the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) which instituted war crime statutes which would begin individuals to be tried in court such as military officers during the genocide ("Rwanda genocide of 1994"). UNAMIR stayed in Rwanda for two years after the genocide (Rwanda).
  • Government Restoration

    Government Restoration
    As a means of restoration to Rwanda, the government changed national symbols such as the flag and anthem in order to promote equality amongst Hutus and Tutsis and not favour one group. A rewritten constitution was also created to assist reconstruction of the government in 2003 ("Rwanda Genocide").
  • Arrest of Military Officer

    Arrest of Military Officer
    Bernard Munyagishari was arrested on May 26th, 2011 after running for 17 years for being the mastermind on attacks to the Tutsi residents of Gisenyi (Rwanda).
  • Rwanda Today

    Rwanda Today
    After years of restoration pertaining to economy, government, and war crime trials, Rwanda is in a more stable state. Turmoil still exists between the Democratic Republic of Congo. Presently, freedom is limited, but the country is in a better position (“Rwanda Genocide”). This genocide needs to be closely examined so it does not repeat itself. In the future, countries such as the US should be able to step in to help.