Canada:1950 - Present Day Timeline.

  • Nancy Hodges.

    Nancy Hodges.
    Nancy and her husband moved to Victoria, B.C. in 1916 from England. She first ran for office in the 1937 election for the Liberal Party. Improving medical services and insurance, protection of single women and compensation benefits for the working class were a few things she campaigned for. After a few failed elections her perseverance paid off and she was elected as Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and became the first women in the Commonwealth of Nations to hold that office.
  • Oil Pipeline from Edmonton to the Great Lakes.

    Oil Pipeline from Edmonton to the Great Lakes.
    The 1770km oil pipeline from Edmonton to the Great Lakes was completed, linking Canada's gas fields with the markets of central Canada. In 1958 Alberta gas finally reached Toronto and imports of Texas gas ended.
  • The Massey Report.

    The Massey Report.
    Vincent Massey chaired the Commission to investigate the state of arts and culture in Canada and issued his report on 1 June 1951. His recommendations resulted in the founding of the National Library of Canada, the creation of the Canada Council of the Arts, federal aid for universities and conservation of historic places. These recommendations are seen as the first steps to nurture, preserve and promote Canadian culture.
  • Debut of the Cobalt Bomb.

    Debut of the Cobalt Bomb.
    After WWII, scientists identified cobalt-60 as a radiation source appropriate for cancer therapy. It was cheaper, safer and stronger than radium. Projects were initiated in Ottawa and in Saskatoon. The first patient was treated in Ottawa on 27 Oct. and in Saskatchewan on 8 Nov. It increased the cure rate to 75% from 25%. Harold Johns, the developer of the Cobalt-60 cancer therapy unit in Saskatchewan, received honours from the Canadian Science and engineering Hall of fame.
  • Suez Canal Crisis

    Suez Canal Crisis
    Egypt's leader seized control of the Suez Canal as Britain and France withdrew foreign investment to build a dam on the Nile river. They attacked Egypt and the Soviet leader responded with nuclear threat if they did not withdraw. L.B. Pearson, Canadian minister of external affairs, suggested France and Britain retreat and allow a UN force to stabilize the situation. It was led by Canadian General E.L.M Burns. Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize.
  • Official Opening of the St Lawrence Seaway.

    Official Opening of the St Lawrence Seaway.
    The Seaway was opened to commercial shipping and provided transportation of ocean vessels from Lake Superior to Montreal. It had a major economic impact on Canada and the US and provided economical freight rates for bulk commodities and made a contribution to the basic industries of both countries. It allowed for the use of the iron ore deposits of Quebec and Labrador and Canada went from an iron ore importer to exporter.
  • Quebec Liberal Party wins election.

    Quebec Liberal Party wins election.
    Jean Lesage led a strong campaign in the 1960 election against the Union Nationale. They had a modern approach that embraced social and economic change. During the Quiet Revolution they updated the structure of government and public service in Quebec and nationalized Quebec's electric companies in 1962 which symbolized the period's political transformation.
  • Approval of the Canadian Bill of Rights.

    Approval of the Canadian Bill of Rights.
    It was Canada's first federal law to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and was considered groundbreaking and came to be through the government of John Diefenbaker. It was limited as it applied only to federal statutes and not provincial ones. It is still in effect but has been replaced by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982.
  • Tim Hortons.

    Tim Hortons.
    The first restaurant opened in Hamilton, Ontario. It was founded by Canadian hockey player Tim Horton and Jim Charade and later Tim partnered with investor Ron Joyce. They are known for their coffees and baked goods like donuts and Timbits. They are Canada's largest restaurant chain serving more that 5 million cups of coffee per day. They invest in community projects and initiatives.
  • New Canadian National Flag.

    New Canadian National Flag.
    Canada remained part of the British empire after confederation and they either flew the Union Jack or Red Ensign with the Canadian coat of arms. A truly Canadian flag was considered. After much debate a new national flag was approved and accepted. The Senate gave its approval on 17 Dec and Queen Elizabeth signed the royal proclamation on 28 Jan. and it flew for the first time on 15 Feb 1965 on Parliament Hill, Ottawa.
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    Anik A-1 to A-3 launched geostationary domestic satellite.

    Anik-Inuit word for brother. Canada was the first in the world to have a domestic communications satellite system using a satellite in the geostationary orbit. To ensure continuous service, a back-up spacecraft, Anik A-2, must be in orbit and to cover failures, a third satellite, Anik A-3, must be available. A master station to control the satellite contained telemetry, tracking and command capability. It was located at Allen Park northwest of Toronto.
  • Marathon of Hope

    Marathon of Hope
    At 19 Terry Fox lost his leg to cancer after which he wanted to raise money and inspire other cancer sufferers by running across Canada. He was soon followed by tv cameras and became popular. People donated money and he raised $2 million at the halfway mark. Unfortunately the cancer had spread to his lungs. More that $25 million was donated when people heard his cancer returned. He died less than a year later but the impact he has made and awareness he created will last forever.
  • Quebec Referendum 1980

    Quebec Referendum 1980
    Quebec citizens were asked to vote to approve negotiations leading to Quebec's sovereignty. It would enable Quebec to have the power to make its own laws, levy taxes and establish relations abroad while simultaneously maintain an economic association with Canada. The majority was apposed to the idea by 60%.
    A second vote in 1995 narrowly approves remaining in Canada.
  • Constitution Act (Canada Act)

    Constitution Act (Canada Act)
    This ensured full independence for Canada by allowing the country to change its Constitution without approval from Britain. Canada's constitution consisted of several acts of the British Parliament and the most important of these was the British North American Act and only the British Parliament had the authority to change the BNA Act. Pierre Trudeau promised Quebecers that Ottawa would re-open constitutional negotiations. Queen Elizabeth II signed the proclamation in Ottawa on April 17.
  • The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

    The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
    Canadians' rights and freedom were protected by the Canadian Bill of Rights to name one, but none were part of the Constitution. They lacked the supremacy and permanence of the Charter and only applied to federal and not provincial laws. It guarantees all Canadians fundamental rights, democratic rights, mobility rights, legal rights, equality rights and linguistic rights. It protects Canadians against the state. It also protects minorities against parliamentary majorities.
  • Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement
    It was a bilateral trade agreement between Canada and the US and signed by their leaders. It phased out trade restrictions and increased cross-border trade as an improvement to the last trade deal. It eliminated barriers to trade in goods and services between the two countries. Facilitate conditions of fair competition within the free-trade area established by the Agreement, to name a few. It would later expand through NAFTA alter the economic relationship between Canada and the United States.
  • Meech Lake Accord Collapse.

    Meech Lake Accord Collapse.
    It failed due to a self-imposed deadline that passed. The goal was to give provinces more power and Brian Mulroney set out to make the changes the provinces demanded. Each province had to approve the Accord within 3 years. Problems where numerous and new premiers wanted changes made and the Accord had ignored the Native people and they would not let it pass without including them. Manitoba had not approved and Elijah Harper, a Cree member of the provincial legislature denied it.
  • The Oka Crisis.

    The Oka Crisis.
    The protest was caused by the plans of expanding a golf course and building of townhouses on land that included a Mohawk burial ground. Mohawk protesters began a protest which soon escalated into a 78-day standoff between the protesters, Quebec police, the RCMP and the Canadian Army. Related protests were sparked and violence occurred in the Kahnawake reserve. A police officer was killed and the army was called in which ended the protest. The golf course expansion was cancelled.
  • Start of the Idle No More Movement.

    Start of the Idle No More Movement.
    The movement opposed Bill C-45, which was introduced by Stephen Harper's Conservative government. It was argued that the changes ensured government and big businesses were able to continue projects without strict environmental assessment while diminishing the rights and authority of First Nations.
  • Kathleen Wynne: First Female Premier of Ontario.

    Kathleen Wynne: First Female Premier of Ontario.
    She was also the first openly gay premier in Canada. She was entangled in the Ontario power plant scandal which developed under her predecessor. She was accused of having a role in the decision to cancel the construction of the gas plants. 24 March Wynne introduced the Public Sector and MPP Accountability and Transparency Act. It required all MPP's, cabinet members, opposition leaders and their staff to post expense reports online and a $5000 fine for destruction of government records.
  • The End of a Language.

    The End of a Language.
    At 89 Alban Michael, the last remaining fluent Nuchatlaht speaker, died in Campbell River, B.C. He spoke only Nucharlaht but was forced to learn English in the residential schools. He maintained his language ability to speak with his mother who spoke nothing else. Before his death, FirstVoices recorded Alban speaking 1,124 words and 612 phrases in their linguistic database.
  • British Columbia Wildfires.

    British Columbia Wildfires.
    Summer 2017 was one of the worst wildfire seasons in B.C.'s history. Over 1.2 million ha of land burned, more than $649 million was spend in fire suppression and about 65 000 people were evacuated and displaced. The State of Emergency lasted 70 days and was the longest in the province's history. Support came from Australia, New Zealand, Mexico and the US. Thunderstorms from 6-8 July started over 190 wildfires.
  • Toronto Van Attack.

    Toronto Van Attack.
    Alek Minassian killed 10 people and injured 16 people when he used a rented van and set out to kill as many people(mostly women) as possible. He was said to have been an incel and drew inspiration from the movement. He was found guilty on 10 charges of murder and 16 of attempted murder.
  • Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls Released

    Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls Released
    Persistent and deliberate human rights violations are the source of Canada's extreme rates of violence against indigenous women and girls. There is a high disproportional rate of violence against and missing indigenous women and girls in Canada. It was described as a hidden crisis and ignored by the federal government. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada were behind the call for a national public inquiry. Violence against indigenous women were found to be more frequent and severe.
  • Andrew Scheer Resigns as CPC Leader

    Andrew Scheer Resigns as CPC Leader
    Numerous reasons were given including pressure on him as he was accused to use Conservative party money to pay for private schooling for his children. He claimed the stress of leading the party took a toll on his family. He also had a disappointing election and did not manage to win what was thought to be an easy win with controversy in the opposing party. He would stay on until a replacement was found.
  • Health Canada Issues First Warning Regarding “Mysterious Pneumonia”

    Health Canada Issues First Warning Regarding “Mysterious Pneumonia”
    The start of the Covid-19 outbreak. It was first reported a week before in Wuhan, China and described as a deadly and mysterious viral illness. Canada's chief public health officer. Dr. Theresa Tam, said they are monitoring the situation. No one had any idea the global impact it would have and how long it would last.
  • First Covid-19 patient in Canada.

    First Covid-19 patient in Canada.
    A man in Toronto recently back after traveling to Wuhan, China, reported flu-like symptoms. The symptoms escalated and he went to hospital. He was taken to Sunnybrook Hospital and kept in isolation. After contact tracing it only appeared he transferred the virus to his wife who had milder symptoms and isolated at home. Both made a full recovery.
  • Nova Scotia attacks.

    Nova Scotia attacks.
    22 People were killed and 3 injured. Gabriel Wortman impersonated a police officer, set multiple fires and committed multiple shootings. After the 13hr ordeal he was shot and killed by the RCMP. This was the deadliest rampage in Canadian history and PM Trudeau announced an immediate ban on about 1500 makes and models of military-grade assault-style weapons including what was used in the attacks.