Building the Sports World: Inventions and Technological Advancements

  • Baseball Field

    Baseball Field
    Alexander Cartwright invented the modern baseball field. Along with the members of the New York Knickerbocker Baseball Club, Cartwright formulated the rules and regulations for the game of baseball. This happened to be the most popular and practiced version that is still adhered to today.
  • Shin guards

    Shin guards
    Samual Widdowson, a club player in the 19th century, invented the shin guards. The first team to ever wear shin guards were the Nottingham Forest. Shin guards are used in sports such as football. soccer, and hockey. They are mandated in sports regulations to decrease the number of injuries resulting from aggressive play.
  • American football

    American football
    American football was derived from rugby and English football. The rules and regulations were instituted by Walter Camp, a player and coach at Yale University.He played every sport the school had to offer and created the new scrimmage rules for the game of American football.
  • Basketball

    Dr. James Naismith invented basketball in the winter of 1891 as a demanding indoor game. As a physical educator and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, Massachusetts, Naismith was trying to find an activity that would keep his gym class active during the gloomy, rainy weather. Basketball helped to occupy their time and keep them active while indoors.
  • Volleyball

    William Morgan, the Director of Physical Education at the Holyoke, Massachusetts, YMCA, invented the game of volleyball. The game was originally called Mintonette until the name was changed to volleyball because the game involved a lot of volleying.
  • Shoulder pads

    Shoulder pads
    Abraham Schemel invented the football shoulder pads. The original version was described as a safety jacket for football players to prevent injuries to the shoulders, arms, and neck. The pads provide resistance during charges and tackles. They also protect players from the intensity and force that is exerted by the ball or other players.
  • Water skiing

    Water skiing
    Water skiing was invented by Ralph Samuelson. He was an eighteen-year-old boy from Minnesota who proposed that skiing on water was possible when skiing on snow already existed. He experimented the techniques for successful water skiing (leaning backwards with ski tips up) along with his brother on Lake Pepin in Lake City, Minnesota.
  • Modern soccer cleats

    Modern soccer cleats
    While the origination of the soccer cleats goes back to the 1800's when they were referred to as boots, Adolf (Adi) Dassler, a German shoe factory worker, invented the modern soccer cleats. In the 1930's, he made spiked shoes along with his brother for the olympic track and field events and later initiated the Adidas company. In 1949, Adi revolutionized those cleats by adding rubber studs or cleats.
  • Instant replay

    Instant replay
    Tony Verna invented the original system used for instant replay. It enabled a standard videotape maching to instantly replay network coverage of a game to settle disputes and calls. The videotape machine was used to replay actions from various angles in slow motion to analyze plays in question.
  • Gatorade

    Robert Cade, along with his research team, invented Gatorade as a drink during the football game, used to replenish and rejuvenate players by stabilizing the normal levels of glucose and electrolytes. It was experimented on the members of the Florida Gators as a means to rehydrate during and after a football game.