Performance Enhancement Drugs

  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    The modern applications [of drug use in sports] began in the late nineteenth century, with preparations made from the coca leaf -- the source of cocaine and related alkaloids. Vin Mariani, a widely used mixture of coca leaf extract and wine, was even called 'the wine for athletes.' It was used by French cyclists and... by a champion lacrosse team. Coca and cocaine were popular because they staved off the sense of fatigue and hunger brought on by prolonged exertion
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    Strength Enhancements

  • Drug Enhancement

    Drug Enhancement
    1889 French physician Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard, 72, extracts testicular fluid from dogs and guinea pigs and injects it into himself. He announces his findings at a scientific meeting in Paris, claiming to feel years younger with renewed energy. He reported that hypodermic injection of a fluid prepared from the testicles of guinea pigs and dogs leads to rejuvenation and prolonged human life
  • Drug Enhancments Used in Modern Olympic Games

    Drug Enhancments Used in Modern Olympic Games
    "In 1904 Olympics marathon runner, Thomas Hicks, was using a mixture of brandy and strychnine [a stimulant that is fatal in high doses] and nearly died. Mixtures of strychnine, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine were used widely by athletes and each coach or team developed its own unique secret formulae. This was common practice until heroin and cocaine became available only by prescription in the 1920s.
  • First Rule Against Doping in Sports

    First Rule Against Doping in Sports
    The International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF), the governing body for the sport of track and field, become the first international sporting federation to prohibit doping by athletes.
  • Drug Enhancement

    Drug Enhancement
    Testosterone, is first synthesized by Butenandt and Ruzicka: who earn a Nobel Prize in chemistry for the accomplishment of his cumulative findings in sex hormones.. Butenandt developed anabolic steroids as a way to treat hypogonadism which is a testosterone deficiency.
  • Soldiers Use Amphetamines During WWII

    Soldiers Use Amphetamines During WWII
    The American, British, German, and Japanese armed forces distribute amphetamines to their soldiers to counteract fatigue, elevate mood, and heighten endurance. The amphetamines are used as a substitute for cocaine because they can be taken orally in tablet form, and the effect lasts much longer.
  • Anabolic Steroid Use

    Anabolic Steroid Use
    According to anecdotal accounts, the Nazis test anabolic steroids on prisoners, Gestapos and Hitler. Testosterone and its analogs are used by German soldiers to promote aggressiveness and physical strength.
  • Drug Enhancement

    Drug Enhancement
    The Russian Olympic team performs amazing in their first games in Helsinki although accusations are made of steroid use, especially by the Soviet wrestling team.
  • Enhancement Injections

    Enhancement Injections
    As the U.S.S.R. begins to dominate the sport of powerlifting, a Soviet team doctor allegedly reveals his team's use of testosterone injections to U.S. weightlifting doctor John Ziegler; Ziegler begins work on creating a refined synthesis technique that would produce a compound with the muscle-building benefits of testosterone without androgenic side effects, such as prostate enlargement.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    Ziegler's anabolic steroid, methandrostenolone, is released by Ciba Pharmaceuticals under the name Dianabol in which he introduces it to US Olympic Weight Lifting Team.
  • FDA Approves First Anabolic Steroid for Sale in US

    FDA Approves First Anabolic Steroid for Sale in US
    The "Godfather of Steroids," Dr. John Bosley Zieglar, creates an anabolic steroid called Dianabol that is released by Ciba Pharmaceuticals with FDA approval. Dr. Zieglar noted the success of the Russian weightlifting team due to the use of testosterone in 1954 and began experimenting on US weightlifters. His creation synthesizes the strength-building properties of testosterone while minimizing the negative health effects. Close to his death in 1983, Dr. Zieglar speaks out against his invention
  • Performance Enhancement Drugs

    Performance Enhancement Drugs
    Sports Illustrated publishes, "Our Drug-Happy Athletes" by George Walsh, exposing the use of amphetamines, tranquilizers, cocaine and other drugs in elite sports.
  • Drug Enhancment

    Drug Enhancment
    Roy Alvin serves breakfast with Dianabol to the football team of San Diego Chargers line men. Also, the use of steroids spreads to many Olympic Track and Field Athletes.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    British cyclist Tom Simpson collapses and dies while ascending Mont Ventoux in the Tour de France. His autopsy shows he had consumed amphetamines, which resulted in heart failure and his death spurs the Tour de France to institute doping controls.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    Sports Illustrated produces a three-part investigation about performance-enhancing drugs in sports in which sources predict that the use of such drugs will eventually explode into an epidemic.
  • Performance Drug Tests

    Performance Drug Tests
    German women swimmers win 11 of the 13 individual gold medals, setting eight world records, at the Montreal Olympics, the first to have drug testing. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) bans the use of steroids.
  • Thrower Ben Plucknett

    Thrower Ben Plucknett
    U.S. discus thrower Ben Plucknett tests positive for anabolic steroids. He loses his world record title, the first athlete to be disqualified by the International Association of Athletic Federations due to a positive drug test.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    The gene for human erythropoietin (EPO) is cloned.
  • Modafinil Discovered

    Modafinil Discovered
    Modafinil, a performance enhancing drug that increases mental alertness and physical reaction time, was discovered in France by a neurophysiologist named Michel Jouvet. It's intended use was to help cases of Narcolepsy.
  • Drug Enhancement Effecting Olympic Winner

    Drug Enhancement Effecting Olympic Winner
    The high-profile rivalry between sprinters Carl Lewis and Ben Johnson comes to a head when Johnson posts a record-smashing time of 9.79 seconds in the 100 meters at the Seoul Olympics, shaving .14 of a second off the previous record. Johnson's time is deleted from record books and his gold medal stripped after the anabolic steroid Stanozol is detected in his urine sample.
  • Drug Enhancement Act.

    Drug Enhancement Act.
    The Anabolic Steroids Control Act is introduced by Congress. It classifies steroids as a schedule III controlled substance, for which trafficking is now a felony, not a misdemeanor.
  • Modafinil Enters the US

    Modafinil Enters the US
    It was approved by the Federal Food and Drug Administration in 1998 for the treatment of various mental disorders, including narcolepsy and sleep apnea. It was renamed to Provigil.
  • Tour de France

    Tour de France
    Competition takes a backseat to scandal at the Tour de France when the Festina team is ejected from competition following team director Bruno Roussel's admission that he oversaw the provision of his team with performance-enhancing drugs. A stash of such substances, including erythropoietin, a substance that increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, is discovered in a search of the team masseur's car. Another six of the 21 teams voluntarily drop out of the Tour, citing unfair police.
  • Jeopardy

    Jeopardy
    Suspicions surrounding Michelle Smith's quick rise to athletic stardom are further fueled when the Irish swimmer, who won three gold and a bronze medal at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, misses several drug tests. Smith, whose ascent in the sport came only after she began training with her husband, a discus thrower who is himself on probation for failing a drug test, later tries to dilute with whiskey her sample for a surprise drug test at her home. She is suspended for four years.
  • WADA.

    WADA.
    The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), an independent agency, is formed through the IOC.
  • Modafinil filled Athletes

    Modafinil filled Athletes
    The U.S. Olympic gold medal for the 1600 meter relay was revoked and given to France, because US athlete Calvin Harrison tested positive for modafinil.
  • Ken Caminiti

    Ken Caminiti
    Ken Caminiti, who retired from baseball after the 2001 season, admits in the June 3 issue of Sports Illustrated that he was using steroids when he won the 1996 National League MVP award, adding, "I've made a ton of mistakes. I don't think using steroids is one of them." He estimates that at least half of his fellow big leaguers are regular juicers.
  • Investigation.

    Investigation.
    The grand jury investigation into the BALCO lab and steroids in sports begins.
  • Lance Armstrong.

    Lance Armstrong.
    Cyclist Lance Armstrong, seven-time winner of the Tour de France, is cleared of doping allegations connected to the 1999 Tour de France by the International Cycling Union.
  • Doping- Tour de France

    Doping- Tour de France
    1996 Tour de France winner Bjarne Riis admits using performance-enhancing drugs to win his title. He is the first Tour de France winner to admit to doping.
  • Title Loss.

    Title Loss.
    A U.S. arbitration panel strips cyclist Floyd Landis of his 2006 Tour de France title, and bans him for two years after a positive test for synthetic testosterone after the race. He is the first winner in the race's 105 year history to lose his title due to doping.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    Albany's Times Union breaks a story claiming that a number of hip-hop stars, including Mary J. Blige, 50 Cent and Wyclef Jean, may have used or received prescribed shipments of steroids and HGH.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    Former New York Mets clubhouse employee Kirk Radomski is sentenced to five years probation and an $18,000 fine. He pled guilty in 2007 to distributing steroids and laundering money between 1995 and 2005.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    New York Yankees baseball player Alex Rodriguez admits to using performance-enhancing drugs from 2001 to 2003 while playing for the Texas Rangers.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    The Court of Arbitration for Sport rules that athletes suspended for doping cannot be barred from competing in the next Olympics if they have served their ban.
  • Drug Enhancement

    Drug Enhancement
    Major League Baseball and the MLB Players Association agree to a new five-year contract that includes among others the following stipulations: starting with 2012 Spring Training, all players will be subject to HGH blood testing for reasonable cause at all times during the year.
  • Generic Forms

    Generic Forms
    Generic forms of Modafinil became available to sell in the United States in 2012, however more potent forms are illegal.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    A former Pittsburgh Steelers team doctor, Richard Rydze, is arrested and accused of conspiracy to distribute anabolic steroids, human growth hormone and painkillers to patients.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    MLB and the MLB Players Association announce their joint drug prevention program will begin testing for human growth hormone during the 2013 regular season.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    MLB files a lawsuit against Florida anti-aging clinic Biogenesis of America and several of its employees, accusing them of providing banned performance-enhancing drugs to baseball players.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    Biogenesis of America clinic founder Anthony Bosch surrenders to the Drug Enforcement Administration and agrees to plead guilty to a charge of distributing steroids to high school and professional athletes
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    The NFL and NFL Players Association reach an agreement regarding performance-enhancing drugs, that includes a third-party arbitration appeals process and human growth hormone (HGH) testing. The new policy also modifies discipline for certain violations, which makes three previously suspended players; Wes Welker, Stedman Bailey and Orlando Scandrick eligible to return to their teams.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    Kenya's Rita Jeptoo, a three-time Boston Marathon champion and two-time Chicago Marathon winner, is banned from competition for two years after testing positive for red blood cell stimulant erythropoietin (EPO) last September.
  • Drug Enhancements

    Drug Enhancements
    The blood-doping data reveals that a third of medals, including 55 golds, have been won in endurance events at the Olympics and world championships by athletes who have recorded suspicious tests, yet the authorities have failed to take away any of the medals. The data in the files has been locked in the International Association of Athletics Federations’ (IAAF) Monaco headquarters, in which more than 800 athletes have recorded blood-test results described highly suggestive of doping or abnormal.
  • Future

    Future of Gene Modification for better athletes to make them better, faster, and stronger.