Untitled 2

Build up to Industrial Revolution

  • Jan 1, 1095

    The Crusades

    The Crusades
    The Crusades were a series of wars taking place in Asia and the levant. The first crusade was called by Pope Urban II of the Roman Catholic Church to take back the Christian city of Jerusalem. After the Crusades, the soldiers brought back many things from the war. Such as: Better medical knowledge, gunpowder, alchemy, navigation instruments, mathematics, concentric castles, chess, windmills, catapults. The also brought back domestic animals, like: the donkey, carrier pigeon and faster horses
  • Jan 1, 1176

    London Bridge

     London Bridge
    After the death of Thomas Becket, The ArchBishop of Canterbury, King Henry II comissioned a new stone bridge, to replace the old one. The new one had a chapel in the middle in honour of Becket. It cost a lot of money, and took 33 years for it to be completed. It had a draw bridge to let big ships through. The bridge was constructed to allow people to cross the River Thames.
  • Jan 1, 1348

    Bubonic Plague (Black Death)

    Bubonic Plague (Black Death)
    The Black death was known as one of the most devastating pandemics in human history. Killing 75-200 million people in 1348-1350. The plague was believed to have started in China or Central Asia. It then travelled along the silk road and ended up in Crimea (Ukraine) in 1346. The plague was carried by Oriental Rat Fleas, which lived in black rats. After the plague doctors gave up on Astronomy and Religion and focused on parcticul measures to cure the sick.
  • Jan 1, 1440

    The Printing Press

    The Printing Press
    In 1440, german invetor Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press. The printing press allowed people to turn there writings and scrolls into books. The printing press used metal molds and alloys, a special press, and oil-based inks which allowed it to make books in mass productions. The printing press is one invention which led to the Industrial Revolution.
  • Mar 20, 1450

    Invention of spectacles

    Invention of spectacles
    Spectacles were invented by an Italian named Marco Polo, after he seen some spectacle device from a trip to China. The first spectacles had two glass lenses that was in a frame, which magnified what the person was reading or writing.
  • Jan 1, 1495

    Modern Europe- Dry Dock

    Modern Europe- Dry Dock
    The first modern dry dock which is still in use was commissioned by Henry VII of England at HMNB Portsmouth. Dry docks were a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to let a load to be floated, and drained to let the load rest on a dry platform. Dry docks were used for construction, maintenance and repairs on ships, boats and other vessels.
  • Jan 1, 1500

    The musket

    The musket
    Muskets were a muzzle-loaded, long barrel rifle which was shot from the shoulder. They were mainly used for the infantry. A soldier that was armed with a musket was called a musketeer. Muskets were very inaccurate back then and had a very short range, so when there was a war musketeers would go close to the enemy before they shoot. A ball bearing is used as ammunition for the musket.
  • The East India Trading Company

    The East India Trading Company
    After the defeat of the Spanish Amada in 1588, merchants gave a petition to Queen Elizebth I for them to sail the Indian Ocean. The queen granted them permission and on April 10th 1591 three ships sailed and was one of the English's earliest overseas Indian expeditions. They finally succeeded on December 31st 1600. The first fleet that landed was lead by Sir James Lancaster. From India they traded: cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, saltpetre, tea and opium.
  • English colony in America

    English colony in America
    James I sailed to America and made a settlement in the state of Virginia. It was called Jamestown, after the founder James I. The town sereved as their capital for 83 years. From 1616-1699.
  • Great Fire of London

    Great Fire of London
    From Sunday, 2, September a fire broke out at a bakery on Pudding lane. The fire raged on till 5, September 1666 destroying many homes and churches, though there weren't many deaths. After the fire King Charles decided to rebuild the city, and a monument was erected in memory of the Fire. Before the fire many people were killed by plague, but after the fires the plague died down.
  • Coal Mines

    Coal Mines
    Coal was needed alot in the Industrial Revolution. For centuries the people in Britain used charcoal as it was cheap and easy to aquire as fuel. Industries before 1700's used coal which came from mines near the surface and was relatively easy to get. But before the Industrial Revolution there were two types of mines: drift mines and bell pits. But as the country began to industrialize, coal was needed more. So mines became deeper, but as they got deeper they became more deadlier to people.
  • Invention of the canal

    Invention of the canal
    Canals were a part of the industrial revolution. They were used to move heavy produce as roads could'nt handle the weight. The man associated with the canal was the Duke of Bridgewater. He owned coal mines in Lancashire but marketed it in Manchester which was far away, so he gave the task of designing and building to an engineer named James Brindley.
  • The Spinning Jenny

    The Spinning Jenny
    The Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves England. The Spinning Jenny reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with only one worker able to work up to eight spools at once. The Spinning Jenny was one of the most technology advanced machines in that time, leadin up to the Industrial Revolution.
  • The Steam Engine

    The Steam Engine
    Since the 18th century steam power was used for a variety of practical uses, at first it applied to reciprocating pumps. From the 1780's rotative engines began to appear, driving spinning wheels and power looms. at the turn of the 19th century steam powered transport on land and sea began to appear. The steam engine has been used in factories, mills, mines, powering pumping stations and propelling locomotives, ships and cars.
  • The stethoscope

    The stethoscope
    The Stethoscope was invented in france by Rene Laennec. It consisted of a wooden tube and was monaural, it looked like an ear trumpet. The stethoscope allowed the doctor to listen to then insides of the human or animal. This allowed more medical research and improve life expectancy.